Article | . 2019 Vol. 37, Issue. 1
Seed Germination Responses and Interspecific Variations to Different Incubation Temperatures in Eight Veronica Species Native to Korea

Useful Plant Resources Center, Korea National Arboretum, Yangpyeong 1

2019.. 20:31


The seed germination characteristics of eight Korean native Veronica species (V. dahurica, V. rotunda, V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca, V. pusanensis, V. rotunda var. subintegra, V. nakaiana, V. pyrethrina, and V. kiusiana var. glabrifolia) were evaluated, and seed dormancy types (kinds) were classified. Among the study species, V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca has been designated as both an endemic and rare species (critically endangered) in Korea. The seeds were incubated at constant temperatures of 4, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C for 30 days, and germination percentage and mean germination time were calculated. Embryo morphology was observed in initial seed and at seed coat split. The optimum germination temperatures of eight Veronica species seeds were approximately 20 to 25°C, considering final germination percentage (FGP) and mean germination time (MGT) together. All seeds of Veronica species germinated to more than 90% at five temperature regimes for 30 days except V. rotunda (66.1%) and V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca (47.6%). The seeds of eight Veronica species had underdeveloped embryos that occupied 0.46 to 0.61 of the seed length at dispersal, and the embryo length increased by 18.8 to 58.0% of their initial length. To improve the germination of V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca seeds, we treated the seeds with different periods of cold stratification (0, 3, and 6 weeks at 4°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) soaking (0, 50, 100, and 1,000 mg·L-1). FGP of V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca seeds with the cold stratification period of 0, 3, and 6 weeks was 45.0, 75.3, and 80.3%, respectively. FGP of V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca seeds treated with GA3 (0 [control], 50, 100, and 1,000 mg·L-1) was 44.7, 71.3, 87.2, and 91.7%, respectively. The seeds of V. dahurica, V. pusanensis, V. rotunda var. subintegra, V. nakaiana, V. pyrethrina, and V. kiusiana var. glabrifolia had morphological dormancy (MD). The seeds of V. rotunda had 66% MD, whereas the seeds of V. kiusiana var. diamantiaca had 48% MD and about 44% morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). There were different kinds of dormancy (MD and MPD) within the eight Veronica species examined; thus, we found that there is an interspecific variation in dormancy breaking and germination requirements in the genus. This is the first report that classified seed dormancy types in Veronica species native to the Korean peninsula, and the results could be useful to study the morphological seed dormancy and ecophysiological mechanism of the genus Veronica.

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