Article | . 2018 Vol. 36, Issue. 1
Effect of Different Culture Nutrient Solution EC on Carrot Top Growth and Nutritional Contents in a Closed–type Plant Factory System

Major of Horticultural Science, Jeju National University1
Department of Horticulture Industry, Wonkwang University2

2018.. 37:45


The production of crops in controlled environments is a growing sector of modern agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of culture nutrient solution for the production of carrot leaves in a closed-type plant factory. After sowing, seedlings at the two-true-leaf stage were transplanted to a growing bed system. Hydroponic cultivation was performed using a three-layer NFT system. Culture nutrient solutions were supplied at three electrical conductivity (EC) levels (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 dS·m-1). Measurements of plant growth characteristics, including fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, and leaf area, were performed 14 and 23 days after planting. Differences in culture nutrient solution concentrations did not affect leaf number and chlorophyll content, and did not cause significant difference in antioxidant capacities and total phenol content of carrot plants. However, contents of total phenol, chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol were highest in plants grown in the EC 2.0 dS·m-1 solution, whereas those grown in the EC 3.0 dS·m-1 solution had the highest fresh and dry weights. Collectively, our results indicate that an EC 3.0 dS·m-1 culture nutrient solution combined with a cultivation period of 20-25 days is optimal for the hydroponic cultivation of carrot leaves in a controlled environment. In addition, we found that carrot leaves contain antioxidant compounds and are thus suitable as a leaf vegetable.

1. Almeida VV, Bonafe EG, Muniz EC, Matsushita M, Souza NE, Visentainer JV (2009) Optimization of the carrot leaf dehydration aiming at the preservation of omega-3 fatty acids. Quim Nova 32:1334–1337. doi:10.1590/S0100-40422009000500042  

2. Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM (2007) Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent. Nat Protoc 2:875-877. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.102  

3. Cha MK, Kim JS, Shin JH, Son JE, Cho YY (2014) Practical design of an artificial light-used plant factory for common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L). J Bio-Environ Control 23:371-375. doi:10.12791/ksbec.2014.23.4.371  

4. Cha MK, Kim JS, Cho YY (2012) Growth response of lettuce to various levels of EC and light intensity in plant factory. J Bio-Environ Control 21:305-311. doi:10.12791/ksbec.2012.21.4.305  

5. Cho YY, Choi KY, Lee YB, Son JE (2012) Growth characteristics of sowthistle (Ixeris dentata Nakai ) under different levels of light intensity, electrical conductivity of culture nutrient solution, and planting density in a plant factory. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 53:368-372. doi:10.1007/s13580-012-0691-1  

6. Clifford MN (2000) Chlorogenic acid and other cinnamates-nature, occurrence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism. J Sci Food Agric 80:1033-1043. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<1033::AID-JSFA595>3.0.CO;2-T  

7. D’Anna F, Miceli A, Vetrano F (2003) First results of floating system cultivation of Eruca sativa L. Acta Hortic 609:361-364. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.609.54  

8. Fang SH, Yerra KR, Tzeng YM (2005) Inhibitory effects of flavonol glycosides from cinnamomum osmophloeum on inflammatory mediators in LPS/IFN-γ-activated murine macrophages. Bioorg Med Chem 13:2381-2388. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2005.01.050  

9. Han SH, Kim JS, Teruya T, Teruya Y, Moromizato I, Lim CK (2016) Comparison of the fruit qualities, the free radical scavenging activities and mangiferin content of the mango, cv. Irwin cultivated in Jeju and Okinawa. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 34:634-643. doi. org/10.12972/kjhst.20160065  

10. H eo JW, L ee YB, C hang YS, Lee J T, L ee DB (2010) Effects of light quality and lighting type using an LED chamber system on chrysanthemum growth and development cultured in vitro. Korean J Environ Agric 29:374-380. doi:10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.4.374  

11. Ikeda A, Y Tanimura, K Ezaki, Y Kawai, S Nakayama, K Iwao, H Kageyama (1992) Environmental control and operation monitoring in a plant factory using artificial light. Acta Hortic 304:151-158. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.304.16  

12. KMA (2016) http://web, Nino status and outlook (Press release No.3972)  

13. Kowalczyk K, Wolska J G, Marcinkowska M, Cetner MD, Kalaji HM (2016) Response of growth, quality parameters and photosynthetic apparatus of endive plant to different culture media. Folia Hortic 28:25-30. doi:10.1515/fhort-2016-0004  

14. KOSIS (2015) Open field vegetable cultivation area. 1975-2016  

15. Lee GJ, Heo JW, Kim HH, Jung CR, Kim DE, Nam SY (2016) Effects of artificial light sources on growth and yield of Peucedanum japonicum hydroponically grown in plant factory. Protected Hortic Plant Fac 25:16-23. doi:10.12791/KSBEC.2016.25.2.77  

16. Lee JE, Cha WC (2015) An analysis of the professional's cognition regarding the plant factory feasibility. J Digital Converg 13:89-97. doi:10.14400/JDC.2015.13.12.89  

17. Lee J, Chang MS, Kim GH (2015) Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of organically and conventionally grown carrot. J Korean Soc Food Cult 30:778-782. doi:10.7318/KJFC/2015.30.6.778  

18. Lee SO, Lee HJ, Yu MH, Im HG, Lee IS (2005) Total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from vegetables produced in Ullung Island. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37:233-240  

19. Miller NJ, Rice-Evans CA (1996) Spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity. Redox Rep 2:161-171. doi:10.1080/13510002.1996.11747044  

20. Morimoto T, Torii T, Hashimoto Y (1995) Optimal control of physiological processes of plants in a green plant factory. Control Eng Pract 3:505-511. doi:10.1016/0967-0661(95)00022-M  

21. Neelin JD (1990) A hybrid coupled general circulation model for E1 Nino studies. J Atmos Sci 47:674-693. doi:10.1175/1520-0469 (1990)047<0674:AHCGCM>2.0.CO;2  

22. Park SY (2000) Studies on the SOD-like activity of young green barley leaves (Hordenum vulgare L). MS thesis, Korea University, Seoul,Korea, p 9  

23. Qin L, S Guo, W Ai, Y Tang (2008) Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system. Adv Space Res 41:768-772. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.09.037  

24. Sakamoto M, Suzuki T (2015) Elevated root-zoon temperature modulates growth and quality of hydroponically grown carrots. Agric Sci 6:749-757. doi:10.4236/as.2015.68072  

25. Shin MO, Bae SJ (2001) The effect of Daucus carota L. extracts on the fluidity of phospholipid liposomes. Korean J Soc Food Sci 30: 646-650  

26. Um YC, Oh SS, Lee JG, Kim SY, Jang YA (2010) The development of container-type plant factory and growth of leafy vegetables as affected by different light sources. J Bio-Environ Control 19:333-342  

27. Yu MH, IM HG, Lee HJ, Ji YJ, Lee IS (2006) Components and their antioxidative activities of methanol extracts from sarcocarp and seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:128-134