Article | . 2017 Vol. 35, Issue. 6
Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on Storability and the Occurrence of Black Speck in Spring Kimchi Cabbage

Department of Plant Science, College of Life Sciences, Gangneung-Wonju National University1

2017.. 727:736


The study was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the occurrence of black speck and storability of kimchi cabbage ‘Cheongock’ and ‘Ryouckgwang’ s. Kimchi cabbage was cultivated with three different levels of nitrogen fertilization: half, normal, or double (24, 48, or 96 kg/10 a). Quality parameters measured were reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) content, color (Hunter L, a, and b), occurrence of black speck, and gene expression of polygalacturonase (PG ). At harvest, ‘Ryeokgwang’ showed similar maturity at all nitrogen fertilization levels, whereas double nitrogen fertilization induced fast-paced growth in ‘Cheongock’ compared to the normal fertilization. Expression of PG was not significant difference in ‘Ryeokgwang’, PG was expressed more extensively in the ‘Cheongok’ compared to ‘Ryeokgwang’ and expression increased between 3 and 6 weeks of storage. The hunter L value in the ‘Ryeokgwang’ was maintained until 6 weeks, which was the recommended optimal storage period, however it gradually decreased up to 9 weeks. By contrast, normal level of fertilization with nitrogen maintained quality until 9 weeks in ‘Cheongock’. The reducing sugar contents of ‘Cheongock’ were higher than those of ‘Ryeokgwang’, with glucose more abundant than fructose. Double fertilization led to lower soluble sugar contents in both s. Occurrence of black speck was related to the amount of nitrogen fertilization. Black speck was more severe with double excess and lack of nitrogen fertilization in ‘Ryeokgwang’ and ‘Cheongock’ s, respectively. In conclusion, normal nitrogen fertilization maintained the quality of kimchi cabbage until 6 and 9 weeks in ‘Ryeokgwang’ and ‘Cheongock’, respectively.

1. Bae SJ, Eum HL, Kim BS, Yoon J, Hong JS (2015) Comparison of the quality of highland-grown kimchi cabbage ‘Choon Gwang’ during cold storage after pretreatments. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 33:233-241. doi:10.7235/hort.2015.14048  

2. Berard LS (1990) Effects of nitrogen fertilization on stored cabbage, I. development of physiological disorders on tolerant and susceptible s. J Hortic Sci 65:289-296. doi:10.1080/00221589.1990.11516058  

3. Cantwell MI, Kasmire RF (2002) Postharvest handling systems: flower, leafy, and stem vegetables. In AA Kader, ed, Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, 3rd ed, University of California Davis, CA, USA, pp 423–434  

4. Dimsey R, Barton N (1997) Growing Chinese cabbage. Agricultural Notes, AG0614, Department of Primary Industries, State of Victoria, Australia. ISSN 1329-8062  

5. Florkowski WJ, Shewfelt RL, Brueckner B, Prussia SE (2009) Postharvest handling; A systems approach, 2nd ed. Food Science and Technology, International Series. Academic Press, Elsevier, USA, pp 256-258  

6. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2016) Current world fertilizer trends and outlook to 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations  

7. Freyman S, Toivonen PM, Lin WC, Perrin PW, Hall JW (1991) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, storage losses and chemical composition of winter cabbage. Can J Plant Sci 71:943-946. doi:10.4141/cjps91-135  

8. Gutiérrez-Rodríquez E, Lieth HJ, Jernstedt JA, Lavavitch JM, Suslow TV, Cantwell MI (2013) Texture, composition and anatomy of spinach leaves in relation to nitrogen fertilization. J Sci Food Agric 93:227-237. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5780  

9. Guvenc I (2002) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and nitrogen contents of radishes. Gartenbauwissenschaft 67:23-27  

10. Hammett LK, Miller CH (1982) Influence of mineral nutrition and storage on quality factors of ‘Jewel’ sweet potatoes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 107:972-975  

11. Khalaj MA, Kiani S, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Amoaghaie R (2017) Growth, quality, and physiological characteristics of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) cut flowers in response to different NO- : NH + ratios. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 58:313-323. doi:10.1007/s13580-017-0067-7  

12. Lee HC (2008) Physiological disorders: Calcium deficiency and black speck. Protected Horticulture Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Korea.  

13. Lee IS, Park WS, Koo YJ, Kang KH (1994) Comparison of fall s of Chinese cabbage for kimchi preparation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 26:226-230  

14. Lee SG, Kim SK, Lee HJ, Choi CS, Park ST (2016) Impacts of climate change on the growth, morphological and physiological responses, and yield of Kimchi cabbage leaves. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 57:470-477. doi:10.1007/s13580-016-1163-9  

15. Liang Y, Yu Y, Shen X, Dong H, Lyu M, Xu L, Ma Z, Liu T, Cao J (2015) Dissecting the complex molecular evolution and expression of family in Brassica rapa ssp. chinesis. Plant Mol Biol 89:629-646. doi:10.1007/s11103-015-0390-2  

16. Locascio SJ, Wiltbank WJ, Gull DD, Maynard DN (1984) Fruit and vegetable quality as affected by nitrogen nutrition, In RD Hauck, ed, Nitrogen in Crop Production. Amer. Soc. Agron., ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, pp 617-626  

17. McDougall S, Watson A, Stodart B, Napier T, Kelly G, Troldahl D, Tesoriero L (2013) Tomato, capsicum, chilli and eggplant: a field guide for the identification of insect pests, beneficial, diseases and disorders in Australia and Cambodia. Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, Australia.  

18. Moon W, Lee JW, Chun C (2015) Horticultural Science, Ed 6, KNOU Press, Korea, pp 157-179  

19. Oh DG, Yoon JY, Lee SS, Woo JG (1984) Effects of some mulch materials on Chinese cabbage growing in different seasons. III. Soil temperature and growth of Chinese cabbage in summer. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 25:263-269  

20. Park KW, Kim YS (2016) Horticultural plant nutrition. Academy Book, Korea  

21. Phillips D, McKay A (1989) Chinese cabbage - a crop at the crossroads. WA Grower 26:20-21  

22. Phillips DR, Gersbach NB (1989) Factors influencing petiole spotting (gomasho) in Chinese cabbage. Acta Hortic 247:117-121. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1989.247.19  

23. Rural Development Administration (RDA) (2016) 87&cntntsNo=30634&sKidofcomdtySeCode=VC  

24. Studstill D, Simonne E, Brecht J, Gilreath P (2007) Pepper spot ("Gomasho") on napa cabbage. Document No. HS1101, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension University of Florida, FL, USA,  

25. Tan SC, Haynes YS, Phillips DR (2005) Post-harvest handling of Brassica vegetables. Farmnote No. 44/94, Department of Agriculture WA, Australia  

26. Vigier B, Cutcliffe JA (1984) Effect of boron and nitrogen on the incidence of hollow stem in broccoli. Acta Hortic 157:303-309  

27. Weston LA, Barth MM (1997) Preharvest factors affecting postharvest quality of vegetables. HortScience 32:812-816