Article | 04. 2016 Vol. 34, Issue. 2
Differences in Ethylene and Fruit Quality Attributes during Storage in New Apple Cultivars



Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University1
Department of Horticultural Science, Mokpo National University2
Apple Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA,3
Planning and Coordination Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA4
Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA,5
USDA-ARS, Tree Fruit Research Laboratory6




2016.04. 257:268


PDF XML




Physiological characteristics of five new apple cultivars from the Korean apple breeding program were evaluated as a function of harvest time and storage after harvest. Internal ethylene concentration (IEC), flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA) were measured in ‘Summer Dream’, ‘Summer King’, ‘Green Ball’, ‘Picnic’, and ‘Hwangok’ apples at harvest, during shelf life at 20°C, and one day after cold storage at 0.5°C in air. IEC increased during shelf life in ‘Summer Dream’, ‘Summer King’, and ‘Green Ball’ but not in ‘Picnic’ or ‘Hwangok’, regardless of harvest time. Flesh firmness decreased towards harvest time and decreased gradually with time in cold storage only in the former three cultivars. In turn, IEC increased during cold storage in the first three cultivars but not for the last two cultivars, irrespective of harvest time. Changes in SSC and TA did not consistently relate to harvest time or storage period but TA tended to decrease as IEC increased. Furthermore, IEC was negatively correlated with flesh firmness except in the ‘Green Ball’ cultivar but the significance level was much greater in ‘Summer Dream’ and ‘Summer King’ (p < 0.0001) than in ‘Picnic’ (p < 0.01) or ‘Hwangok’ (p < 0.05) cultivars. Flesh firmness was positively correlated with TA in the first three cultivars but not in the last two cultivars. Overall, the results indicate that cultivars for which IEC increased after harvest had reduced flesh firmness and TA after storage.



1. Ban SH, Yun WH, Kim GH, Kwon SI, Choi C (2014) Genetic identification of apple cultivars bred in Korea using simple sequence repeat markers. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 55:531-539. doi:10.1007/s13580-014-0017-6  

2. Bowen JH, Watkins CB (1997) Fruit maturity, carbohydrate and mineral content relationships with watercore in ‘Fuji’ apples.Postharvest Biol Technol 11:31-38  

3. Colgan R, Stow J, Machese A, Nidzovic S, Else M (2006) Storage quality of low ethylene producing apples. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res 14:85-92  

4. Costa F, Peace CP, Stella S, Serra S, Musacchi S, Bazzani M, Sansavini S, Van de Weg WE (2010) QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). J Exp Bot 61:3029-3039. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq130  

5. Costa F, Stella S, Van der Weg WE, Guerra W, Cecchinel M, Dallavia J, Koller B, Sansavini S (2005) Role of the genes Md-ACO1 and Md-ACS1 in ethylene production and shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Euphytica 141:181-190. doi:10.1007/s10681-005-6805-4  

6. Dandekar A, Teo G, Defilippi B, Uratsu S, Passey A, Kader A, Stow J, Colgan R, James D (2004) Effect of down-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis on fruit flavor complex in apple fruit. Transgenic Res 13:373-384. doi:10.1023/B:TRAG.0000040037.90435.45  

7. Doerflinger FC, Miller WB, Nock JF, Watkins CB (2015) Relationships between starch pattern indices and starch concentrations in four apple cultivars. Postharvest Biol Technol 110:86-95. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.07.012  

8. Ehsani-Moghaddam B, DeEll J (2009) Correlation and path-coefficient analyses of ripening attributes and storage disorders in ‘Ambrosia’and ‘Empire’ apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 51:168-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.07.006  

9. Guerra M, Casquero PA (2011) Harvest parameters to improve the storability of high quality ‘Reinette du Canada’ apple. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 85:544-550  

10. Iwanami H, Moriya S, Kotoda N, Abe K (2008a) Turgor closely relates to postharvest fruit softening and can be a useful index to select a parent for producing cultivars with good storage potential in apple. HortScience 43:1377-1381  

11. Iwanami H, Moriya S, Kotoba N, Takahashi S, Abe K (2005) Influence of mealiness on the firmness of apples after harvest. HortScience 40:2091-2095  

12. Iwanami H, Moriya S, Kotoda N, Takahashi S, Abe K (2008b) Storability in cold temperatures can be evaluated based on changes in fruit quality in apple genotypes under shelf life conditions. HortScience 43:655-660  

13. Jobling JJ, McGlasson WB (1995) A comparison of ethylene production, maturity and controlled atmosphere storage life of Gala, Fuji and Lady Williams apples (Malus domestica, Borkh.). Postharvest Biol Technol 6:209-218. doi:10.1016/0925-5214(94)00002-A  

14. Klein JD, Lurie S (1990) Prestorage heat treatment as a means of improving poststorage quality of apples. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 115:265-269  

15. Knee M (1971) Ripening of apples during storage: II.—Respiratory metabolism and ethylene synthesis in Golden Delicious apples during the climacteric, and under conditions simulating commercial storage practice. J Sci Food Agric 22:368-371. doi:10.1002/ jsfa.2740220711  

16. Kolniak-Ostek J, Wojdyło A, Markowski J, Siuciń ska K (2014) 1-Methylcyclopropene postharvest treatment and their effect on apple quality during long-term storage time. Eur Food Res Technol 239:603-612. doi:10.1007/s00217-014-2256-2  

17. Lau OL, Lane WD (1998) Harvest indices, storability, and poststorage refrigeration requirement of ‘Sunrise’ apple. HortScience 33:302- 304  

18. Lu C, Toivonen PMA (2010) Iincreased maturity enhances 1-MCP efficacy in maintaining quality of summer apples ‘Sunrise’ and ‘Silken’stored at 0°C. Acta Hortic 857:235-242. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.857.27  

19. McMurchie EJ, McGlasson WB, Eaks IL (1972) Treatment of fruit with propylene gives information about the biogenesis of ethylene.Nature 237:235-236. doi:10.1038/237235a0  

20. Moreno E, Obando J, Dos-Santos N, Fernández-Trujillo J, Monforte A, Garcia-Mas J (2008) Candidate genes and QTLs for fruit ripening and softening in melon. Theor Appl Genet 116:589-602. doi:10.1007/s00122-007-0694-y  

21. Nock JF, Watkins CB (2013) Repeated treatment of apple fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior to controlled atmosphere storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 79:73-79. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.01.002  

22. Oraguzie NC, Volz RK, Whitworth CJ, Bassett HCM, Hall AJ, Gardiner SE (2007) Influence of Md-ACS1 allelotype and harvest season within an apple germplasm collection on fruit softening during cold air storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 44:212-219. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.12.013  

23. Périn C, Gomez-Jimenez M, Hagen L, Dogimont C, Pech JC, Latché A, Pitrat M, Lelièvre JM (2002) Molecular and genetic characterization of a non-climacteric phenotype in melon reveals two loci conferring altered ethylene response in fruit. Plant Physiol 129:300-309. doi:10.1104/pp.010613  

24. Pre-Aymard C, Fallik E, Weksler A, Lurie S (2005) Sensory analysis and instrumental measurements of ‘Anna’ apples treated with 1-methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biol Technol 36:135-142. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.12.007  

25. Nock JF, Watkins CB (2013) Repeated treatment of apple fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior to controlled atmosphere storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 79:73-79. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.01.002  

26. Pre-Aymard C, Weksler A, Lurie S (2003) Responses of ‘Anna’, a rapidly ripening summer apple, to 1-methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biol Technol 27:163-170. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00069-8  

27. Tahir II, Nybom H (2013) Tailoring organic apples by cultivar selection, production system, and post-harvest treatment to improve quality and storage life. HortScience 48:92-101  

28. Tatsuki M, Endo A, Ohkawa H (2007) Influence of time from harvest to 1-MCP treatment on apple fruit quality and expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and ethylene receptors. Postharvest Biol Technol 43:28-35. doi:10.1016/ j.postharvbio.2006.08.010  

29. Toivonen PMA, Lu C (2005) Studies on elevated temperature, short-term storage of ‘Sunrise’ summer apples using 1-MCP to maintain quality. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80:439-446  

30. Wargo JM, Watkins CB (2004) Maturity and storage quality of ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. HortTechnology 14:496-499  

31. Watkins CB, Bowen JH, Walker VJ (1989) Assessment of ethylene production by apple cultivars in relation to commercial harvest date.N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 17:327-331. doi:10.1080/01140671.1989.10428052  

32. Watkins CB, Brookfield PL, Harker FR (1993) Development of maturity indices for the ‘Fuji’ apple cultivar in relation to watercore incidence. Acta Hortic 326:267-276. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.326.29  

33. Watkins CB, Nock JF, Whitaker BD (2000) Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 19:17-32. doi:1 0.1016/S0925-5214(00)00070-3  

34. Yang SF, Hoffman NE (1984) Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 35:155-189. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.35.060184.001103 quality. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80:439-446  

35. Wargo JM, Watkins CB (2004) Maturity and storage quality of ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. HortTechnology 14:496-499  

36. Watkins CB, Bowen JH, Walker VJ (1989) Assessment of ethylene production by apple cultivars in relation to commercial harvest date.N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 17:327-331. doi:10.1080/01140671.1989.10428052  

37. Watkins CB, Brookfield PL, Harker FR (1993) Development of maturity indices for the ‘Fuji’ apple cultivar in relation to watercore incidence. Acta Hortic 326:267-276. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.326.29  

38. Watkins CB, Nock JF, Whitaker BD (2000) Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 19:17-32. doi:1 0.1016/S0925-5214(00)00070-3  

39. Yang SF, Hoffman NE (1984) Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 35:155-189. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.35.060184.001103