Article | 02. 2016 Vol. 34, Issue. 1
Light Quality and Photoperiod Affect Growth of Sowthistle (Ixeris dentata Nakai) in a Closed-type Plant Production System

Department of Horticulture, Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus Program), Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University1
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University2
Institute of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University3

2016.02. 67:76


This study was conducted to examine the optimal environmental condition for promoting the growth of sowthistle as affected by light quality and photoperiod in a closed-type plant production system. Seeds were sown in 240-cell plug trays and then germinated for 3 days at a 24-hour photoperiod in a closed-type plant production system with LED lights (R:B:W = 8:1:1). Seedlings were transplanted and grown under 3 types of LED (R:B:W = 8:1:1, R:W = 3:7, or R:B = 8:2) and 4 photoperiods (24/0, 16/8, 8/16, or 4/20 hours) with 230 μmolㆍm-2ㆍs-1 light intensity at a density of 20 cm × 20 cm. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Plants were cultured for 40 days un der the condition of 21 ± 2 ˳ C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity after transplanting. Plants were fed with a recycling nutrient solution (pH 7.0 and EC 2.0 dSㆍ m-1) contained in a deep floating tank. Fresh weight and dry weight of shoot or root, leaf length, and leaf area were the greatest in the photoperiod of 24/0 (light/dark) with RW LED. The highest number of leaves occurred in the photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark) with RB LED, while the incidence of tip burn was higher in the photoperiod of 24/0 (light/dark) compared to the other treatments. Chlorophyll value was the highest in the 16/8 (light/dark) photoperiod and there was no significant difference by light quality. Chlorophyll fluorescence was the lowest in the photoperiod of 24/0 (light/dark) compared with other treatments. Therefore, in terms of economic feasibility and productivity for Ixeris dentata Nakai cultivation in a closed-type plant production system, the results obtained suggest that plants grew the best when kept in a photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark) and light quality of combined LED RW (3:7).

1. Calatayud, A., D. Roca, and P.F. Martinez. 2006. Spatial–temporal variations in rose leaves under water stress conditions studied by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 44:564-573.  

2. Chatterton, N.J. and J.E. Silvius. 1979. Photosynthate partitioning into starch in soybean leaves I. Effect of photoperiod versus photosynthetic period duration. Plant Physiol. 64:749-753.  

3. Choi, Y.H., J.K. Kwon, J.H. Lee, N.J. Kang, M.W. Cho, and J.S. Kang. 2004. Effect of night and daytime temperatures on growth and yield of paprika ‘Fiesta’ and ‘Jubilee’. J. Bio-Envrion. Control 13:226-232.  

4. Collier, G.F. and T.W. Tibbitts. 1982. Tipburn of lettuce. Hortic. Rev. 4:49-65.  

5. Demmig, B and O. Björkman. 1987. Comparison of the effect of excessive light on chlorophyll fluorescence (77 K) and photon yield of O2 evolution in leaves of higher plants. Planta 171:171-184.  

6.  Dougher, T.A. and B. Bugbee. 2004. Long-term blue light effects on the histology of lettuce and soybean leaves and stems. J. Am.Soc. Hortic. Sci. 129:467-472.  

7. Genty, B., J.M. Briantais, and N.R. Baker. 1989. The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 990:87-92.  

8. Goto, E. and T. Takakura. 2003. Reduction of lettuce tipburn by shortening day/night cycle. J. Agric. Meteorol. 59:219-225.  

9. Hayashi, M., T. Kokai, M. Tateno, K. Fujiwara, and Y. Kitaya. 1993. Effect of the lighting cycle on the growth and morphology of potato plantlets in vitro under photomixotrophic culture conditions. Environ. Control Biol. 31:169-175.  

10. Heo, J.W., Y.B. Lee, D.B. Lee, and C.H. Chun. 2009. Light quality affects growth, net photosynthetic rate, and ethylene production of ageratum, African marigold, and salvia seedling. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 27:189-193.  

11. Im, J.U., Y.C. Yoon, K.W. Soe, K.H. Kim, A.K. Moon, and H.T. Kim. 2013. Effect of LED light wavelength on chrysanthemum growth.Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 1:49-54.  

12. Ishii, M., T. Ito, T. Maruo, K. Suzuki, and K. Matsuo. 1995. Plant growth and physiological characters of lettuce plant grown under artificial light of different irradiating cycles. Environ. Control Biol. 33:143-149.  

13. Johkan, M., K. Shoji, F. Goto, S. Hashida, and T. Yoshihara. 2010. Blue light emitting diode light irradiation of seedlings improves seedling quality and growth after transplanting in red leaf lettuce. HortScience 45:1809-1814.  

14. Lee, J.S. and Y.H. Kim. 2014. Growth and anthocyanins of lettuce grown under red or blue light-emitting diodes with distinct peak wavelength. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 32:330-339.  

15. Long, S.P., S. Humphries, and P.G. Ealkowski. 1994. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in nature. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 45:633-662.  

16. Masamoto, T. 2007. Plant Factory. Ohmsha and World Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo.  

17. Ohashi-Kaneko, K., M. Takase, N. Kon, K. Fujiwara, and K. Kurata. 2007. Effect of light quality on growth and vegetable quality in leaf lettuce, spinach and komatsuna. Environ. Control Biol. 45:189-198.  

18. Park, J.E., Y.G. Park, B.R. Jeong, and S.J. Hwang. 2013. Growth of lettuce in closed-type plant production system as affected by light intensity and photoperiod under influence of white LED light. Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 3:228-233.  

19. Qin, L., S. Guo, W. Ai, and Y. Tang. 2008. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system. Adv.Space Res. 41:768-772.  

20. Schreiber, U. and W. Bilger. 1993. Progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research: major developments during the past years in retrospect, p. 151-173. In: H.D. Behnke, U. Lfittge, K. Esser, J.W. Kadereit, and M. Runge (eds.). Progress in botany/Fortschritte der Botanik. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg N.Y.  

21. Seo, J.T. 2011. Review of wild herbs and vegetables industry in Korea. Food Preservation Processing Ind. Korean Soc. Food Preservation 10:3-8.  

22. Shin, Y.S., M.J. Lee, E.S. Lee, J.H. Ahn, J.H. Lim, H.J. Kim, H.W. Park, Y.G. Um, S.D. Park, and J.H. Chai. 2012. Effect of LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) irradiation on growth and mineral absorption of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ‘Lollo Rosa’). J. Bio-Environ. Control 21:180-185.  

23. Sicora, C., M. Zoltan, and V. Imre. 2003. The interaction of visible and UV-B light during photodamage and repair of photosystem Ⅱ.Photosynth. Res. 75:127-137.  

24. Son, J.E. 1997. Development of plant factory in Korean agriculture. Hortic. World 2:10-11.  

25. Sonneveld, C. and N. Straver. 1994. Nutrient solutions for vegetables and flower grow in water on substrates. 8th ed. Proefstation voor tuinbouw onder glas te Naaldiwjk. no. 8, Holland. p.45.