Article | 02. 2016 Vol. 34, Issue. 1
Growth and Flowering Responses of Petunia to Various Artificial Light Sources with Different Light Qualities



Department of Horticultural Science, Yeungnam University1
LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center, Yeungnam University2




2016.02. 55:66


PDF XML




This study was carried out to investigate the effect of artificial light sources with different light qualities on the growth and flowering characteristics of a herbaceous long-day plant, Petunia × hybrida Hort. Seedlings of petunia cultivar ‘Madness Rose’ were potted, acclimated for one week, and grown in a phytotron equipped with tube- and bulb-type fluorescent lamps (FL tube and bulb), tube-type white light-emitting diodes (LED tube), halogen lamps (HL), metal halide lamps (MH), and high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) for 10 weeks. The temperature, photoperiod, and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the phytotron were 22 ± 2 ˳ C, 16 h, and 25 ± 2 μmolㆍm-2ㆍs-1, respectively. Light sources combined with HL promoted stem elongation, and plant height and internode length decreased with increasing red to far-red (R:FR) ratio. FL tube + LED tube, HPS, and FL tube promoted branching, whereas plants grown under light sources combined with HL did not have any branches. Days to flowering (from longest to shortest) occurred as follows: FL tube + HL > FL tube + HL > MH > HPS = FL tube + FL bulb > FL tube + LED tube > LED tube > FL tube, indicating that reducing the R:FR ratio of the light sources promoted flowering. Only 20% of plants grown under an FL tube flowered, whereas under all other treatments, 100% of plants flowered. At 10 weeks after treatment, plants grown under HPS and MH had (cumulatively) 12 open flowers, and those grown under FL tube + FL bulb, LED tube, FL tube + LED tube, and HPS treatment had approximately seven flower buds. These results suggest that light sources with low R:FR ratios promote flowering and stem elongation in petunia, but they reduce its ornamental value due to overgrowth and poor branching.



1. Albert, N.W., D.H. Lewis, H. Zhang, L.J. Irving, P.E. Jameson, and K.M. Davies. 2009. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia . J. Exp. Bot. 60:2191-2202.  

2. Casal, J.J., P.J. Aphalo, and R.A. Sánchez. 1987. Phytochrome effects on leaf growth and chlorophyll content in Petunia axilaris . Plant Cell Environ. 10:509-514.  

3. Cha, M.K., J.H. Cho, and Y. Y. Cho. 2013. Growth of leaf lettuce as affected by light quality of LED in closed-type plant factory system. Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 22:291-297.  

4. Choi, M.K., G.Y. Baek, S.J. Kwon, Y.C. Yoon, and H.T. Kim. 2014. Effect of LED light wavelength on lettuce growth, vitamin C and anthocyanin contents. Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 23:19-25  

5. Franklin, K.A. 2008. Shade avoidance. New Phytol. 179:930-944.  

6.  Glowacka, B. 2006. Response of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplant to the daylight supplemented with blue spectrum. Folia Hortic. Suppl. 4:145-149.  

7. Halliday, K.J., M. Koornneef, and G.C. Whitelam. 1994. Phytochrome B and at least one other phytochrome mediate the accelerated flowering response of Arabidopsis thaliana L to low red/far-red ratio. Plant Physiol. 104:1311-1315.  

8. Hamamoto, H., H. Shimaji, and T. Higashide. 2004. Earlier-bolting spinach cultivars respond to a wider spectrum of night-break light for bolting than later-bolting cultivars. J. Agric. Meteorol. 60:191-195.  

9. DHeo, J.W., C.W. Lee, D. Chakrabarty, and K.Y. Paek. 2002. Growth responses of marigold and salvia bedding plants as affected by monochromic or mixture radiation provided by a light-emitting diode (LED). Plant Growth Regul. 38:225-230.  

10. Im, J.U., Y.C. Yoon, K.W. Seo, K.H. Kim, A.K. Moon, and H.T. Kim. 2013. Effect of LED light wavelength on chrysanthemum growth. Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 22:49-54.  

11. Leduc, N., H. Roman, F. Barbier, T. Péron, L. Huché-Thélier, J. Lothier, S. Demotes-Mainard, and S. Sakr. 2014. Light signaling in bud outgrowth and branching in plants. Plants 3:223-250.  

12. Lee, J.G., S.S. Oh, S.H. Cha, Y.A. Jang, S.Y. Kim, Y.C. Um, and S.R. Cheong. 2010. Effects of red/blue light ratio and short-term light quality conversion on growth and anthocyanin contents of baby leaf lettuce. J. Bio-Environ. Control 19:351-359.   

13. Lee, J.S., S.W. Nam, and Y.H. Kim. 2013. Growth and phytochemicals of lettuce as affected by light quality of discharge lamps. Protected Hortic. Plant Fac. 22:400-407.  

14. Lee, N.R. and S.Y. Lee. 2014. Growth and tuber yield of sweet potato slips grown under different light-emitting diodes. Protected Hortic. Plant Factory 23:356-363.  

15. Li, Q. and C. Kubota. 2009. Effects of supplemental light quality on growth and phytochemicals of baby leaf lettuce. Environ. Exp. Bot. 67:59-64.  

16. Mass, F.M. and J. van Hattum. 1998. Thermomorphogenic and photomorphogenic control of stem elongation in Fuchsia is not mediated by changes in responsiveness to gibberellins. J. Plant Growth Regul. 17:39-45.  

17. Moe, R. and R. Heins. 1990. Control of plant morphogenesis and flowering by light quality and temperature. Acta Hortic. 272:81-90.  

18. NAQS (National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service). 2014. Agricultural products standards. NAQS, Gimcheon, Korea.  

19. Oh, G.S., G.J. Jung, and Y.B. Im. 2009. Experiment on reduction effect of CO2 concentration with indoor plants under illuminance condition in office. J. Reg. Assn. Architec. Inst. Korea 11:233-240.  

20. Oh, W. and K.S. Kim. 2010. Temperature and light intensity induce morphological and anatomical changes of leaf petiole and lamina in Cyclamen persicum. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 51:494-500.  

21. Oh, W., E.S. Runkle, and R.M. Warner. 2010. Timing and duration of supplemental lighting during the seedling stage influence quality and flowering in petunia and pansy. HortScience 45:1332-1337.  

22. Okamoto, K., T, Yanagi, and S. Kondo. 1997. Growth and morphogenesis of lettuce seedlings raised under different combinations of red and blue light. Acta Hortic. 435:149-158.  

23. Park, I.S., T.J. Lim, and W. Oh. 2012. Growth responses of interior Plectranthus amboinicus and Fittonia albivernis influenced by different artificial light sources. Flower Res. J. 20:179-186.  

24. Park, Y.K., S. Muneer, and B.R. Jeong. 2015. Morphogenesis, flowering, and gene expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in response to shift in light quality of night interruption. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16:16497-16513.  

25. Prescott, A.G. and P. John. 1996. Dioxygenases: molecular structure and role in plant metabolism. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47:245-271.  

26. Pramuk, L.A. and E.S. Runkle. 2005. Modeling growth and development of Celosia and Impatiens in response to temperature and photosynthetic daily light integral. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 130:813-818.  

27. Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2001. Specific functions of red, far red, and blue light in flowering and stem extension of long day plants.J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 126:275-282.  

28. Runkle, E.S. and R.D. Heins. 2002. Stem extension and subsequent flowering of seedling grown under a film creating a far-red deficient environment. Sci. Hortic. 96:257-265.  

29. Runkle, E.S., S.R. Padhey, W. Oh, and K. Getter. 2012. Replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps may delay flowering. Sci. Hortic. 143:56-61.  

30. Sato, T., N. Kudo, T. Moriyama, H. Ohkawa, Y. Kanayama, and K. Kanahama. 2009. Acceleration of flowering of Eustoma grandiflorum in early winter by day-extension treatments with far-red rich bulb-type fluorescent lamps. Hortic. Res. (Japan) 8:327- 334.  

31. Trentmann. S.M. and H. Kende. 1995. Analysis of Arabidopsis cDNA that shows homology to the tomato E8 cDNA. Plant Mol. Biol. 29:161-166.  

32. Shin, J.H., H.H. Jung, and K.S. Kim. 2010. Night interruption using light emitting diodes (LEDs) promotes flowering of Cyclamen persicum in winter cultivation. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 51:391-395.  

33. Smith, H. and G.C. Whitelam. 1997. The shade avoidance syndrome: multiple responses mediated by multiple phytochromes. Plant Cell Environ. 20:840-844  

34. Tazawa, S. 1999. Effects of various radiant sources on plant growth (Part 1). JARQ. 33:163-176.  

35. Tibbitts, T.W. , D.C. Morgan, and J.J. Warrington. 1983. Growth of lettuce, spinach, mustard and wheat plants under four combinations of high-pressure sodium, metal halide and tungsten halogen lamps at equal PPFD J. Am. Hortic. Sci. 108:622-630.  

36. Tsuchihashi, Y. 2009. Effects of short duration treatment of far-red-intercepting film on the growth and flowering of certain bedding plants. Hortic. Res. (Japan) 8:93-99.  

37. Thomas, B. 2006. Light signals and flowering. J. Exp. Bot. 57:3387-3393.  

38. Thomas, B. and D. Vince-Prue. 1997. Photoperiodism in plants. Academic Press, London, UK.  

39. Tucker, D.J. 1975. Far-red light as a suppressor of side shoot growth in the tomato. Plant Sci. Let. 5:127-130.  

40. Yamada, A., T. Tanigawa, T. Suyama, T. Matsuno, and T. Kunitake. 2008. Night break treatment using different light sources promotes of delays growth and flowering of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 77:69-74.  

41. Yamada, A., T. Tanigawa, T. Suyama, T. Matsuno, and T. Kunitake. 2009a. Red:far-red light ratio and far-red light integral promote of retard growth and flowering in Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. Sci. Hortic. 120:101-106.  

42. Yamada, A., T. Tanigawa, T. Suyama, T. Matsuno, and T. Kunitake. 2009b. Effects of red-light intensity during long-day treatment on flowering and cut flower quality in Eustoma grandiflorum cultivars for early-autumn shipment. Hortic. Res. (Japan) 8:309-314.  

43. Yoshimura, T., M. Nishiyama, and K. Kanahama. 2002. Effects of red of far-red light and red/far-red ratio on the shoot growth and flowering of Matthiola incana. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 71:575-582.