Watermelon Experiment Station1
Fruit Vegetables Research Institute2
Jeollabuk-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services3
One of the main factors restricting production of triploid seedless watermelon is poor germination due to weak embryos, thick seed coats, and larger air spaces. This study was carried out to investigate the priming effects of different concentrations of chemicals, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), fusicoccin, and gibberellic acid (GA) on germination and seedling uniformity of triploid watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three commercial triploid cultivars, Seedless Plus, Sinus, and Sizero, were pretreated with water and different levels of H2O2 (2 and 4%), fusicoccin (FC: 1, 5, and 10 μM), and GA (1, 5, and 10 μM). The present findings helped to find optimal priming conditions for improving germination of triploid watermelon. Treatment with 5 μM GA and hydropriming helped to break seed dormancy, enhancing the final germination percentages in all triploid cultivars and increasing the germination index in Sizero. These seed-priming treatments could be used on large scale for industrial applications. Moreover, hydropriming provides a simple, effective, and costless method to improve seed germination and seedling vigor of Sinus and Sizero varieties.
1. Ajmal Khan, M., B. Gul, and D.J. Weber. 2009. Effect of germination regulating chemicals on seed germination of Halogeton glomeratus for alleviation of salinity stress. Pak. J. Bot. 41:1205-1212.
2. Ballarin-Dent, A. And M. Cucucci. 1979. Effect of abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and fusicoccin o the treatment potential during early phase of germination in radish (Raphnus sativus L.) seeds. Planta 1476:19-23.
3. Çavusoglu, K. and K. Kabar. 2010. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the germination and early seedling growth of barley under NaCl and high termperature stresses. Eur. Asia J. Biosci. 4:70-79.
4. Chen, K., R. Arora, and U. Arora. 2010. Osmopriming of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale) seeds and germination performance under temperature and water stress. Seed Sci. Technol. 38:45-57.
5. Duval, J.R. and D.S. NeSmit. 1998. Germination response of ‘Genesis’ triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] to hydrogen peroxide and seed coat alteration. HortScience 33:545-546.
6. Duval, J.R. and D.S. NeSmit. 2000. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide and seedcoat removal or clipping improve germination of ‘Genesis’ triploid watermelon. HortScience.35:85-86.
7. Egel, D.S.1999. Seed germination and health for triploid (Seedless) watermelons. BP‐62.
8. Eskandari, H. and K. Kazemi. 2011. Effect of seed priming on germination properties and seedling establishment of cowpea (Vigna sinensis). Not. Sci. Biol. 3:113-116.
9. Eskandari, H. 2013. Effects of priming technique on seed germination properties, emergence and field performance of crops. A review. Intl. J. Agron. Plant Prod. 4:454-458.
10. Esmaelli, M.A. and A. Heidarzade. 2012. Investigation of different osmopriming techniques on seed and seedling properties of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes. IRJABS 3: 242-246.
11. Farooq, M., S.M.A. Basra, H. Rehman, N. Ahmad, and B.A. Saleem. 2007. Osmopriming improves the germination and early seedling growth of melons (cucumis meloL.). Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 44:529-536.
12. Farooq, M., S.M.A. Basra, B.A. Saleem, M. Nafees, and S.A. Chishti. 2005. Enhancement of tomato seed germination and seedling vigor by osmopriming. Pak. J. A. Sci. 42:36-41.
13. Ghodrat, V. and M.J. Rousta. 2012. Effect of priming with gibberellic acid (GA) on germination and growth of corn (Zea mays L.) under saline conditions. IJACS 4:882-885.
14. Grange, S.L., D.I. Leskovar, L.M. Pike, and B.G. Cobb. 2000. Excess moisture and seedcoat nicking influence germination of triploid watermelon. HortScience 35:1355-1356.
15. Grange, S.L., D.I. Leskovar, L.M. Pike, and B.G. Cobb. 2003. Seedcoat structure and oxygen enhanced environments affect germination of triploid watermelon. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 128:253-259.
16. Gul, B. and D.J. Weber. 1998. Effect of dormancy relieving compounds on the seed germination of non-dormant Allenrolfea occidentalis under salinity stress. Ann. Bot. 82:555-560.
17. Harrington, J.F. and P.A. Minges. 1954. Vegetable seed germi-nation. Univ. Calif. Agric. Ext. Serv. (Mimeo).
18. Huang, R., S. Sukprakarn, T. Thongket, and S. Juntakool. 2002. Effect of hydropriming and redrying on the germination of triploid watermelon seeds. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 36:219-224.
19. Kihara, H. 1951. Triploid watermelons. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 58:217-230.
20. Liu, P., W. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Yan, N. He, and X. LU. 2010. Comparison of seed coat structure between different ploidy watermelons. J. Changjiang Vegetables. DOI CNKL:SON: CJSC.0.2010-08-009.
21. Lutsenko, E.K., E.A. Marushko, N.V. Kononenko, and T.G. Leonova. 2005. Effect of fusicoccin on the early stages of sorghum growth at high NaCl concentration. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 30:273-288.
22. Marr, C.V. and K.L.B. Gast. 1991. Reactions by consumers in a ‘farmers’market to prices for seedless watermelon and ratings of eating quality. HortTechnology 1:105-106.
23. Marre, E. 1979. Fusicoccin: a tool in plant physiology. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 30:273-288.
24. Maynard, D.N. and G.W. Elmstrom. 1992. Triploid watermelon production practices and varieties. Acta Hortic. 318:169-173.
25. Mereddy, R., L. Wu, S.W. Hallgren, Y. Wu, and K.E. Conway. 2000. Solid matrix priming improves seedling vigor of Okra seeds. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 80:33-37.
26. Moeinzadeh, A., F. Sharif-Zadeh, M. Ahmadzadeh, and F.H. Tajabadi. 2010. Biopriming of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed with Pseudomonas fluorescens for improvement of seed invigoration and seedling growth. AJCS 4:564-570.
27. Moghanibashi, M., H. Karimmojeni, P. Nikneshan, and D. Behrozi. 2012. Effect of hydropriming on seed germination indices of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under salt and draught conditions. PKJ 1:10-15.
28. Nerson, H., H.S. Paris, Z. Karchi, and M. Sachs. 1985. Seed treatments for improved germination of tetraploid watermelon. HortScience 15: 253-254.
29. Rezaei, R. and M. Ramezani. 2012. The physiological effects on some traits of osmopriming germination of maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). IJB 4:132-148.
30. Rouhi, H.R., M.A. Aboutalebian, and F. Sharif-Zadeh. 2011. Effects of hydro and osmopriming on drought stress tolerance during germination in four grass species. Int. J. AgriScience 1:107-114.
31. Selvarani, K. and K. Umarani. 2011. Evaluation of seed priming methods to improve seed vigour of onion (Allium cepacv. aggregatum) and carrot (Daucus carota). J. Agric. Technol. 7: 857-867.
32. Shehzad, M., M. Ayub, A.U.H. Ahmad, and M. Yaseen. 2012. Influence of priming techniques on emergence and seedling growth of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). J. Anim. Plant Sci. 22:154-158.
33. Siadat, S.A., S.A. Moosavi, M.S. Zadeh, F. Fotouhi, and M. Zirezadeh. 2011. Effects of halo and phytohormone seed priming on germination and seedling growth of maize under different duration of accelerated ageing treatment. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6:6453-6462.
34. Simonovic, A., D. Grubisic, Z. Giba, And R. Konjevic. 2000. Interaction of gibberellics and fusicoccin in growth retardant and far red light inhibited germination in lettuce seeds. Plant Growth Regul. 32:91-97.
35. Tajima, N., M. Nukina, N. Kato, and T. Sasso. 2004. Novel fusicoccin R and S and the fusicoccin S Aglycon (phomosiol) from Phomopsis amygdali Niigata 2-A, and their seed germination stimulating activity in the presence of absisic acid. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68:1125-1130.
36. Tzortzakis, N.G. 2009. Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed germination and seedling vigour in endive and chicory. HortScience 36:117-125.
37. Whitaker, T.W. and G.N. Davis. 1962. Cucurbits. Interscience publisher. Inc., New York.
38. Yang, M.L. and F.J.M. Sung. 1994. The effect of suboptional temperature on germination of triploid watermelon seeds of different weights. Seed Sci. Technol. 22:485-493.
39. Yari, L., A. Zareyan, S. Sheidaie, and F. Khazaei. 2012. Influence of high and low temperature treatments on seed germination and seedling vigor of rice (Oryza sativa L.). WASJ 16:1015-1018.
40. Zhang, X. 2004. Inbred tetraploid watermelon line 90-4194.United States Patent Application Number 2004/0172690 A1.