Article | 12. 2015 Vol. 33, Issue. 6
Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Vegetation Indices to Predict the Timing of Nitrogen Demand in Pentas lanceolata



Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, National Taiwan University1
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University2
Department of Horticulture and Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University3




2015.12. 845:853


PDF XML




The objective of this study was to predict the timing of nitrogen (N) demand through analyzing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF), soil-plant analysis development (SPAD), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which are positively correlated with foliar N concentration in star cluster (Pentas lanceolata). The plants were grown in potting soil under optimal conditions for 30 d, followed by weekly irrigation with five concentrations (0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 mM) of N for an additional 30 d. These five N application levels corresponded to leaf N concentrations of 2.62, 3.48, 4.00, 4.23, and 4.69%, respectively. We measured 13 morphological and physiological parameters, as well as the responses of these parameters to various N-fertilizer treatments. The general increases in Dickson’s quality index (DQI), above-ground dry weight (DW), total DW, flowering rate, △F/Fm’, and qP in response to treatment with 0 to 8 mM N were similar to those of SPAD, NDVI, and Fv/Fm. Consistent and strong correlations (R2 = 0.60 to 0.85) were observed between leaf N concentration (%) and SPAD, NDVI, △F/Fm’, and above-ground DW. Validation of leaf SPAD, NDVI, and △F/Fm’ revealed that these vegetation indices are accurate predictors of leaf N concentration that can be used for non-destructive estimation of the proper timing for N-solution irrigation of P. lanceolata. Moreover, irrigation with 8 mM N-fertilizer is recommended when leaf N concentration, SPAD, NVDI, and △F/Fm’ ratios are reduced from their saturation values of 4.00, 50.68, 0.64, and 0.137%, respectively.



1. Alam, M.M., J.K. Ladha, S.R. Khan, Foyjunnessa, H. Rashida, A.H. Khana, and R.J. Buresh. 2005. Leaf color chart for managing N fertilizer in lowland rice in Bangladesh. Agron. J. 97:949-959.  

2. Ambrosio, N., C. Arena, and A.V.D. Santo. 2006. Temperature response of photosynthesis, excitation energy dissipation and alternative electron sinks to carbon assimilation in Beta vulgaris L. Environ. Exp. Bot. 55:248-257.  

3. Bajwa, S.G., A.R. Mishra, and R.J. Norman. 2010. Canopy reflectance response to plant nitrogen accumulation in rice. Precision Agric. 11:488-506.  

4. Bayala, J., Z.M. Dianda, Z.J. Wilson, S.J. Oue´draogo, and Z.K. Sanon. 2009. Predicting field performance of five irrigated tree species using seedling quality assessment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. New For. 38:309-322.  

5. Bonneville, M. and J.W. Fyles. 2006. Assessing variations in SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter measurements and their relationships with nutrient content of trembling aspen foliage. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 37:525-539.  

6. Boussadia, O., K. Steppe, H. Zgallai, S.B.E. Hadj, M. Braham, R. Lemeur, and M.C. Labeke. 2010. Effects of nitrogen deficiency on leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and biomass production in two olive cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Koroneiki’. Sci. Hortic. 123:336-342.  

7. Chen, P., D. Haboudane, N. Tremblay, J. Wang, P. Vigneault, and B. Li. 2010. New spectral indicator assessing the efficiency of crop nitrogen treatment in corn and wheat. Remote Sens. Environ. 114:1987-1997.  

8. Coplen, T.B. 1995. Reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotopic abundances. Geothermics 24:707-712.  

9. Demmig-Adams, B., W.W. Adams, D.H. Barker, B.A. Logan, D.R. Bowlong, and A.S. Verhoeven. 1996. Using chlorophyll fluore-scence to assess the fraction of absorbed light allocated to thermal dissipation of excess excitation. Physiol. Plant 98:253-264.  

10. Devitt, D.A., R.L. Morris, and L.K. Fenstermaker. 2005. Foliar damage, spectral reflectance, and tissue ion concentrations of trees sprinkle irrigated with waters of similar salinity but different chemical composition. HortScience 40:819-826.  

11. Dickson, A., A.L. Leaf, and J.F. Hosner. 1960. Quality appraisal of white spruce and white pine seedling stock in nurseries. For. Chron. 36:10-13.  

12. Du, Q., M. Chen, R. Zhou, Z. Chao, Z. Zhu, G. Shao, and G. Wang. 2009. Cd toxicity and accumulation in rice plants vary with soil nitrogen status and their genotypic difference can be partly attributed to nitrogen uptake capacity. Rice Sci. 16:283-291.  

13. Fracheboud, Y. and J. Leipner. 2003. The application of chlorophyll fluorescence to study light, temperature, and drought stress, p. 125-150. In: J.R. DeEll and P.M.A. Toivonen. (eds.). Practical applications of chlorophyll fluorescence in plant biology. Kluwer, Dordrecht.  

14. Gulías, J., J. Flexas, A. Abadia, and H. Medrano. 2002. Photo-syn-thetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species. Tree Physiol. 22:687-697.  

15. Hirotsu, N., A. Makino, S. Yokota, and T. Mae. 2005. The photo-synthetic properties of rice leaves treated with low temperature and high irradiance. Plant Cell Physiol. 46:1377-1383.  

16. Huang, N., Z. Niu, Y. Zhan, S. Xu, M.C. Tappert, C. Wu, W. Huang, S. Gao, X. Hou, and D. Cai. 2012. Relationships between soil respiration and photosynthesis-related spectral vegetation indices in two cropland ecosystems. Agric. For. Meteorol. 160:80-89.  

17. Inoue, Y., M.S. Moran, and T. Horie. 1998. Analysis of spectral measurements in paddy field for predicting rice growth and yield based on a simple crop simulation model. Plant Prod. Sci. 1:269-279.  

18. Johnson, C.M., P.R. Stout, T.C. Broyer, and A.B. Carlton. 1957. Comparative chlorine requirements of different plant species. Plant Soil 8:337-353.  

19. Kitao, M., T.T. Lei, T. Koike, H. Tobita, and Y. Maruyama. 2006. Tradeoff between shade adaptation and mitigation of photo-inhibition in leaves of Quercus mongolica and Acer mono acclimated to deep shade. Tree Physiol. 26:441-448.  

20. Locke, J.C., J.E. Altland, and D.M. Bobak. 2011. Seedling geranium response to nitrogen deprivation and subsequent recovery in hydroponic culture. HortScience 46:1615-1618.  

21. Madakadze, I.C., K.A. Stewart, R.M. Madakadze, P.R. Peterson, B.E. Coulman, and D.L. Smith. 1999. Field evaluation of the chlorophyll meter to predict yield and nitrogen concentration of switchgrass. J. Plant Nutr. 22:1001-1010.  

22. Manas, P., E. Castro, and J. Heras. 2009. Quality of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings using waste materials as nursery growing media. New For. 37:295-311.  

23. Molina-Bravo, R., C. Arellano, B.R. Sosinski, and G.E. Fernandez. 2011. A protocol to assess heat tolerance in a segregating population of raspberry using chlorophyll fluorescence. Sci. Hortic. 130:524-530.  

24. Nieuwenhuize, J., Y.E.M. Maas, and J.J. Middelburg. 1994. Rapid analysis of organic carbon and nitrogen in particulate materials. Mar. Chem. 45:217-224.  

25. Porcar-Castell, A., E. Pfündel, J.F.J. Korhonen, and E. Juurola. 2008. A new monitoring PAM fluorometer (MONI-PAM) to study the short- and long-term acclimation of photosystem II in field conditions. Photosynth. Res. 96:173-179.  

26. Raun, W.R. and G.V. Johnson. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agron. J. 91:357-363.  

27. Ritchie, G.A., T.D. Landis, R.K. Dumroese, and D.L. Haase. 2010. Assessing plant quality, p.17-82. In: T.D. Landis, Dumroese, R.K. and D.L. Haase. (eds.). The container tree nursery manual. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA.  

28. Scalon, S.P., T.S. Jeromini, R.M. Mussury, and D.M. Dresch. 2014. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 324:103-113.  

29. Sims, D.A. and J.A. Gamon. 2002. Relationships between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages. Remote Sens. Environ. 81:337-354.  

30. Souza, R.P., E.C. Machado, J.A.B. Silva, A.M. Lagôa, and J.A.G. Silveira. 2004. Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluore-scence and some associated metabolic changes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during water stress and recovery. Environ. Exp. Bot. 51:45-56.  

31. Špunda, V., J. Kalina, O. Urban, V.C. Luis, I. Sibisse, J. Puertolas, M. Šprtová, and M.V. Marek. 2005. Diurnal dynamics of photosynthetic parameters of Norway spruce trees cultivated under ambient and elevated CO: the reasons of midday depression in CO assimilation. Plant Sci. 168:1371-1381.  

32. Strachan, I.B., E. Pattey, and J.B. Boisvert. 2002. Impact of nitrogen and environmental conditions on corn as detected by hyperspectral reflectance. Remote Sen. Environ. 80:213-224.  

33. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2006. Assimilation of mineral nutrients, p. 289-313. In: L.Taiz, and E. Ziher. (eds.). Plant physiology. 4th ed. Sinauer associates, Inc., Publishers, Sunderlands, USA.  

34. Wang, Y., B.L. Dunn, and D.B. Arnall. 2012. Assessing nitrogen status in potted geranium through discriminant analysis of ground-based spectral reflectance data. HortScience 47:343-348.  

35. Whitehead, D., N.T. Boelman, and M.H. Turnbull. 2005. Photo-synthesis and reflectance indices for rainforest species in ecosystems undergoing progression and retrogression along a soil fertility chrono sequence in New Zealand. Oecologia 144: 233-244.  

36. Wilson, B.C. and D.F. Jacobs. 2012. Chlorophyll fluorescence of stem cambial tissue reflects dormancy development in Juglans nigra seedlings. New For. 43:771-778.  

37. Xue, L., W. Cao, W. Luo, T. Dai, and Y. Zhu. 2004. Monitoring leaf nitrogen status in rice with canopy spectral reflectance. Agron. J. 96:135-142.  

38. Yang, H., J. Yang, L. Yamin, and J. He. 2014. SPAD values and nitrogen nutrition index for the evaluation of rice nitrogen status. Plant Prod. Sci. 17:81-92.  

39. Zheng, H.L., Y.C. Liu, Y.L. Qin, Y. Chen, and M.S. Fan. 2015. Establishing dynamic thresholds for potato nitrogen status diagnosis with the SPAD chlorophyll meter. J. Integ. Agric. 14:190-195.