Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University1
Naju Foundation of Natural Dyeing Culture2
Department of Horticulture Industry, College of Life Science and Resource, Wonkwang University3
Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Wonkwang University4
The present study investigated the plant growth characteristics, dormancy breaking, yield, and biological activity properties (contents of flavonoid and phenolic compounds, nitrite scavenging activity, and the survival rate of lung cancer) of four asparagus cultivars. It aimed to examine selection possibilities for high efficacy cultivar to promote biological activity in asparagus cultivation in South Korea. The results showed that the number of asparagus buds and root fresh and dry weight of ‘Jersey Giant’, ‘Jersey Supreme’, and ‘NJ953’ were higher than those of ‘UC157’ cultivar, and there were no differences in the number of roots. The dormancy breaking period of ‘Jersey Supreme’ was prolonged compared to the other cultivars. ‘Jersey Giant’ and ‘NJ953’ had more total spears, and greater spear diameter, and yield than other cultivars. Total flavonoid content was unaffected by cultivar and was higher in ethanol extraction than in hot water extraction. Total phenolic compound content was the lowest in ‘NJ953’ for both hot water and ethanol extracts, whereas in the ethanol extraction, ‘UC157’ had the highest, with 39.23 mg･L-1. ‘Jersey Giant’, ‘Jersey Supreme’, and ‘NJ953’ all showed greater than 70% nitrite scavenging activity. In the case of ethanol extraction, the survival rates of lung cancer in extracts from ‘Jersey Giant’, ‘Jersey Supreme’, and ‘UC157’ were lower than ‘NJ 953’ cultivar, regardless of extraction concentration. The survival rate of lung cancer was lower in hot water extraction than in ethanol extraction, so that the consumption of asparagus is also expected to be helpful in preventing lung cancer. The growth characteristics and biological activity effects of edible asparagus that were identified in the present study are expected to be useful in selection of high efficacy cultivars for biological activity and utilization.
1. Cha, J.Y. and Y.S. Cho. 2001. Biofunctional activities of citrus flavonoids. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 44:122-128.
2. Chin, C.K. and S.A. Garrison. 2008. Functional elements from asparagus for human health. Acta Hortic. 776:219-225.
3. Daningsih, E. 2005. Growth development and related changes in morphology-physiology of asparagus plants associated with their productivity. Ph D thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
4. Dewanto, V., X. Wu, K.K. Adom, and R.H. Liu. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3010-3014.
5. Fanasca, S., Y. Rouphael, E. Venneria, E. Azzini, A. Durazzo, and G. Maiani. 2009. Antioxidant properties of raw and cooked spears of green asparagus cultivars. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44:1017-1023.
6. Fuentes-Alventosa, J. M., S. Jaramillo, G. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, P. Cermeño, J. A. Espejo, A. Jiménez-Araujo, R. Guillén-Bejarano, J. Fernández-Bolaños, and R. Rodríguez-Arcos. 2008. Flavonoid profile of green asparagus genotypes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:6977-6984.
7. Frei, B. and J.V. Higdon. 2003. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vitro: Evidence from animal studies. J. Nutr. 133:3275-3284.
8. Gorinstein, S., Y.S. Park, B.G. Heo, J. Namiesnik, H. Leontowicz, M. Leontowicz, K.S. Ham, J.Y. Cho, and S.G. Kang. 2009. A comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in frequently consumed raw vegetables. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 228:903-911.
9. Gray, J.I. and L.R. Dugan Jr. 1975. Inhibition of N-nitrosamine formation in model food systems. J. Food Sci. 40:981-984.
10. Guerrero, T.E., P. Vejarano, J.L. Paredes, and R. Cépeda. 2012. Phytochemical screening and quantification of total flavonoids of canned white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). Acta Hortic. 950:241-245.
11. Haynes, R.J. 1987. Accumulation of dry matter and changes in storage carbohydrate and amino acid content in the first 2 years of asparagus growth. Sci. Hortic. 32:17-23.
12. Heo, B.G., S.U. Chon, Y.J. Park, J.H. Bae, S.M. Park, Y.S. Park, H.G. Jang, and S. Gorinstein. 2009. Antiproliferative activity of Korean wild vegetables on different human tumor cell lines. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 64:257-263.
13. Jia, Z., M. Tang, and J. Wu. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and they scavenging effects on super- oxide radicals. Food Chem. 64:555-559.
14. Kawaguchi, K., T. Mizuno, K. Aida, and K. Uchino. 1997. Hesperidin as an inhibitor of lipases from porcine pancreas and pseudomonas. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61:102-104.
15. Kim, E.J., J.Y. Choi, M. Yu, M.Y. Kim, S. Lee, and B. H. Lee. 2012. Total polyphenols, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of Korean natural and medicinal plants. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44:337-342.
16. Ku, Y.G., D.J. Woolley, A.R. Hughes, and M.A. Nichols. 2007. Temperature effects on dormancy, bud break and spear growth in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. 82:446-450.
17. Lee, E.J., K. S. Yoo, and B.S. Patil. 2010. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV methods for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears. J. Food Sci. 76:C703-C709.
18. Lee, J.H., J.H. Bae, and Y.G. Ku. 2013. Effect of two male cultivars of asparagus with low temperature treatment on bud breaking and spear growth. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 31: 141-145.
19. Lee, J.W., J.H. Lee, I.H. Yu, S. Gorinstein, J.H. Bae, and Y.G. Ku. 2014. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 69:175-181.
20. Lee, K. S., M. G. Kim, and K. Y. Lee. 2006. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extract from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 24:338-342.
21. Maeda, T., K. Honda, T. Sonoda, S. Motoki, K. Inoue, T. Suzuki, K. Oosawa, and M. Suzuki. 2010. Light condition influences rutin and polyphenol contents in asparagus spears in the mother-fern culture system during the summer–autumn harvest. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 79:161-167.
22. Mosmann, T. 1983.Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J. Immunol. Methods 65:55-63.
23. Motoki, S., H. Kitazawa, T. Maeda, T. Suzuki, H. Chiji, E. Nishihara, and Y.Shinohara. 2012. Effects of various asparagus production methods on rutin and protodioscin contents in spears and cladophylls. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 76: 1047-1050.
24. Na, G.M., H.S. Han, S.H. Ye, and H.K. Kim. 2004. Physiological activity of medicinal plant extracts. Korean J. Food Preserv. 11:388-393.
25. Normington, K.W., I. Baker, M. Molina, J.S. Wishnok, S.R. Tannenbaum, and S. Puju. 1986. Characterization of a nitrite scavenger, 3-hydroxy-2-pyranone, from Chinese wild plum juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34:215-217.
26. Swann, P.F. 1975. The toxicology of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 26:1761-1770.
27. Robb, A.R. 1984. Physiology of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) as related to the production of the crop. N. Z. J. Exp. Agric. 12:251-260.
28. Rodríguez, R., S. Jaramillo, G. Rodríguez, J.A. Espejo, R. Guillén, J. Fernández-Bolaños, A. Heredia, and A. Jiménez. 2005. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from several asparagus cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:5212-5217.
29. Seong, K.C., J.S. Lee, S.G. Lee, and B.C. Yoo. 2001. Comparison of growth characteristics by varieties and effects of rain shelter and mulching on the production of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). J. Bio-Environ. Control 10:187-196.
30. Shao, Y., C.K. Chin, C.T. Ho, W. Ma, S.A. Garrison, and M.T. Huang. 1996. Anti-tumor activity of the crude saponins obtained from asparagus. Cancer Lett. 104:31-36.
31. Shou, S., G. Lu, and X. Huang. 2007. Seasonal variations in nutritional components of green asparagus using the mother fern cultivation. Sci. Hortic. 112:251-257.
32. Sinton, S.M. and D.R. Wilson. 1999. Comparative performance of male and female plants during the annual growth cycle of a dioecious asparagus cultivar. Acta Hortic. 479:347-353.
33. Sun, T., J.R. Powers, and J. Tang. 2007. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of asparagus, broccoli and their juices. Food Chem. 105:101-106.
34. Tian, Q., E.G. Miller, H, Ahmad, L. Tang, and B.S. Patil. 2001. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr. Cancer 40:180-184.
35. Wang, M., Y. Tadmor, Q.L. Wu, C.K. Chin, S.A. Garrison, and J.E. Simon. 2003. Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:6132-6136.
36. Wilson, D.R., S.M. Sinton, and C.E. Wright. 1999. Influence of time of spear harvest on root system resources during the annual growth cycle of asparagus. Acta Hortic. 479:313-319.
37. Woolley, D.J., E. Daningsih, and M. Nichols. 2008. Bud population dynamics and productivity of asparagus. Acta Hortic. 776:429-433.