Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration1
Department of Integrative Plant Science, School of Bioresource and Bioscience, Chung-Ang University2
In this study, we investigated the onset and release of endo-dormancy under natural conditions by observing bud break characteristics in ‘Fuji’ apple trees using water cuttings. Through examinations of bud break rate and days to bud break, we found that the endo-dormancy of ‘Fuji’ apple tree continues for 70 d from 165 to 255 d after full bloom (DAFB), from late October to early January of the following year. In addition, within 20 d of first bud break, based on a final bud break rate of 60% or more, we able to identify the timing of the changeover from para-dormancy to endo-dormancy, and endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy. Analysis of the chilling requirement during the endo-dormancy period revealed that chilling accumulation up to 255 DAFB to release endo-dormancy amounted to 666 and 517 h based on the CH and Utah models, respectively. Observation of internal changes in the bud during endo-dormancy showed that flower bud differentiation begins from mid-July, and time of inflorescence of the disk flower is available to find. The flower buds subsequently developed slowly but steadily during endo-dormancy and in the following year in February, the developmental stage of each organ had progressed. Moreover, the flower buds of ‘Fuji’ apples were mostly healthy during the dormancy period, but some exhibited necrosis of flower primordium, due partial cell damage from the formation of ice crystals rather than a direct effect of the low temperature. Flower buds were formed in both the axillary buds of bourse shoots and terminal buds of spurs, but lower bud differentiation was observed for the terminal buds of spurs at rate of about 65% of total buds, which was directly related to the bud size and shoot diameter.
1. Andersen, P.C. and T.E. Crocker. 2009. Low-chill apple cultivars for north and north central Florida. Dept. of Hort. Sci. Inst. of Food and Agr. Sci. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
2. Asakura, T. 2011. Model prediction of the spring phenology for ‘Fuji’ apple. Acta Hortic. 903:1135-1140.
3. Atkinson, C.J., R.M. Brennan, and H.G. Jones. 2013. Declining chilling and its impact on temperate perennial crop. Environ. Exp. Bot. 91:48-62.
4. Ben Mimoun M., and T.M. Dejong. 1999. Using the relation between growing degree hours and harvest date to estimate run-times for PEACH: A tree growth and yield simulation model. Acta Hortic. 499:107-114.
5. Bergh, O. 1985. Morphogenesis of Malus domestica cv. Starking flower buds. S. Afr. J. plant Soil 2:187-190.
6. Burke, M.J., L.V. Gusta, H.A. Quamme, C.J. Weiser, and P.H. Li. 1976. Freezing and injury in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 27:507-528.
7. Cain D.L. 2006. Chill hours in home fruit orchards. http://www. aces.edu/counties/Walker/newscolumns/chillhoursinfruit.pdf
8. Cesaraccio, C., D. Spano, R.L. Snyder, and P. Duce. 2004. Chilling and forcing model to predict bud-burst of crop and forest species. Agr. For. Meteorol. 126:1-13.
9. Chmielewski, F.M., A. Müller, and E. Bruns. 2004. Climate changes and trends in phenology of fruit trees and field crops in Germany, 1961-2000. Agr. For. Meteorol. 121:69-78.
10. Choi, I.M., C.H. Lee, Y.P. Hong, and H.S. Park. 2007. Relation between one-year-old branch vigor and bud necrosis in ‘Campbell Early’ grapevines. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 25:375-381.
11. Choi, I.M., J.H. Han, S.H. Kim, J.G. Cho, I.C. son, and K.R. Do. 2011. Effect of climatic changes in fruit culture zone and cultural countermeasures. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 29:39. (Abstr.)
12. Chung, U., K.J. Lee, and B.W. Lee. 2007. Preliminary report of observed urban-rural gradient of carbon dioxide concentration across Seoul, Suwon, and Icheon in South Korea. Kor. J. Agr. For. Meteorol. 9:268-276.
13. Collins, C. and B. Rawnsley. 2005. Factors influencing main bud necrosis (PBN) in Australian vineyard. VII. Intl. Symp. Grapvine Physiol. Biotechnol. Acta Hortic. 689:81-86.
14. Dokoozlian, N.K. 1999. Chilling temperature and duration interact on the budbreak of ‘Perlette’ grapevines cuttings. HortScience. 34:1-3.
15. El-Agamy, S.Z., A.K.A Mohanmed, F.M.A. Mostafa, and A.Y. Abdallah. 2001. Chilling and heat requirements for budbreak and fruiting of “Anna” and “Dorsett Golden” apple cultivars under warm climatic conditions. Acta Hortic. 565:03-108.
16. Faust, M., D. Liu, S.Y. Wang, and G.W. Stutte. 1995. Involvement of apical dominance in winter dormancy of apple buds. Acta Hortic. 395:47-56.
17. Fishman, S., A. Erez, and G.A. Couvillon. 1987. The temperature- dependence of dormancy breaking in plants-mathematical analysis of a 2-step model involving a cooperative transition. J. Theor. Biol. 124:473-483.
18. Foster, T., R. Johnston, and A. Seleznyova. 2003. A morphological and quantitative characterization of early floral development in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Ann. Bot. 92:199-206.
19. Guy, C.L. 1990. Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: Role of protein metabolism. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41:187-223.
20. Hauagge, R. and J.N. Cummins. 1991. Phenotypic variation of length of bud dormancy in apple cultivars and related Malus species. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 116:00-106.
21. Heide, O.M. 2008. Interaction of photoperiod and temperature in the control of growth and dormancy of Prunus species. Sci. Hortic. 115:309-314.
22. Heide, O.M. and A.K. Prestrud. 2005. Low temperature, but not photoperiod, controls growth cessation and dormancy induction and release in apple and pear. Tree Physiol. 25:109-114.
23. Herter, F.G., N.L. Finardi, and J.C. Mauget. 1988. Dormancy development in apple trees curtivars Gala, Golden and Fuji in pelotas. Acta Hortic. 232:109-115.
24. Horvath, D.P., J.V. Anderson, W.S. Chao, and M.E. Foley. 2003. Knowing when to grow: Signals regulating bud dormancy. Trends Plant Sci. 8:534-540.
25. Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2013. Fifth assessment report (WG 1) of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.
26. Jackson, D.I. and G.B. Sweet. 1972. Flower initiation in temperate woody plants (a review based largely on the literature of conifers and deciduous fruit trees). Hortic. Abstr. 42:9-25.
27. Kim, E.J., B.H.N. Lee, Y.H. Kwon, K.H. Shin, K.H. Chung, S.J. Park, and H.S. Park. 2011. Bud necrosis characteristics of ‘Hongosul’ grape. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 29:407-412.
28. Kim, J.H., J.C. Kim, K.C. Ko, K.R. Kim, and J.C. Lee. 2006. General pomology. Hyangmoonsha Press. Seoul. p. 38-39.
29. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). 2012. Automatic weather system (AWS). http://www.kma.go.kr.
30. Kweon, H.J., D.H. Sagong, Y.Y. Song, M.Y. Park, S.I. Kwon, and M.J. Kim. 2013. Chilling requirement for breaking of internal dormancy of main apple cultivars in Korea. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 31:666-676.
31. Lopez, G., R.S Johnson, and T.M. DeJong. 2007. High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size. Calif. Agric. 61:31-34.
32. Luedeling, E., M. Zhang, V. Luedeling, and E.H. Girvetz. 2009. Sensitivity of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees to climate change. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 133:23-31.
33. Mohamed, H.B., A.M. Vadel, J.M.C. Genus, and H. Khemira. 2010. Biochemical changes in dormant grapevine shoot tissues in response to chilling: Possible role in dormancy release. Sci. Hortic. 124:440-447.
34. Okuba, H. 2000. Growth cycle and dormancy in plants. CABI. P. 1-22.
35. Ramina, A, M. Colauzzi, A. Masia, A. Pitacco, T. Caruso, R. Messina, and G. Scalabrelli. 1995. Hormonal and climatological aspects of dormancy in peach buds. Acta Hortic. 395:35-45.
36. Richardson, E.A., S.D. Seeley, and D.R. Walker. 1974. A model for estimating the completion of rest for ‘Redhaven’ and ‘Elberta’ peach trees. Hortic. Sci. 9:331-332.
37. Rodrigo, J. 1999. Spring frosts in deciduous fruit trees: Mor-phological damage and flower hardiness. Sci. Hortic. 85:155-173.
38. Scagel, C.F., R.P Regan, and G. Bi. 2010. Bud necrosis of green ash nursery trees is influenced by nitrogen availability and fertilizer type. HortTechnology 20:206-212.
39. Shaltout, A.D. and C.R. Unrath. 1983. Rest completion prediction model for Starkrimson Delicious apples. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 108:957-961.
40. Steponkus, P.L. 1984. Role of the plasma membrane in freezing injury and cold acclimation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35: 543-584.
41. Takemura, Y., K. Kuroki, K. Matsumoto, and F. Tamura. 2013. Cultivar and areal differences in the breaking period of bud endodormancy in pear plants. Sci. Hortic. 154:20-24.
42. Yun, S.H., J.N. Im, J.T. Lee, K.M. Shim, and K.H. Hwang. 2001. Climate change and coping with vulnerability of agricultural productivity. Kor. J. Agric. For. Meteorol. 4:220-237.