Article | 08. 2015 Vol. 33, Issue. 4
Effects of Elevated Spring Temperatures on the Growth and Fruit Quality of the Mandarin Hybrid ‘Shiranuhi’



Citrus Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science1
Department of Biology and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Jeju National University2
Agricultural Research Institute for Climate Change, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science3




2015.08. 459:469


PDF XML




The effects of elevated spring temperatures on the growth and fruit quality of the mandarin hybrid ‘Shiranuhi’ [(Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) × C. reticulata] were investigated in plastic greenhouses, to develop a cropping system to improve the quality of the fruit and increase the income of growers on Jeju Island, South Korea. Under conditions of elevated temperature I (25/15°C, day/night) and elevated temperature II (28/18°C, day/night) during early spring, budburst was advanced by 11 and 15 d, and full bloom by 22 and 45 d, respectively, compared to those of the plants grown at ambient air temperature in a plastic greenhouse. Elevated temperatures decreased the number of spring shoots but increased mean spring shoot length and leaf area. Growing ‘Shiranuhi’ trees at elevated temperatures resulted in increases in mean fruit weight and fruit L/D ratio (> 1.0). In addition, fruit color development was significantly advanced in trees grown under elevated temperatures during early spring, which allowed the fruit to be harvested 1-2 months earlier than trees grown under ambient air temperature. Fruit soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) at harvest were similar between elevated temperature I and ambient air temperature, but were significantly higher than at elevated temperature II. Considering fruit quality, harvest time, and yield, the elevated temperature treatment regime of 25/15°C (day/night) during early spring could be useful for cultivation of the mandarin hybrid ‘Shiranuhi’ to increase the income of growers.



1. BOK (Bank of Korea). 2003. Citrus Industry Status and Investigation of the Actual Condition of the Citrus Families. Bank of Korea Jeju Branch, Jeju, Korea.  

2. Brown, D.S. 1953. Climate in relation to deciduous fruit production in California. VI. The apparent efficiencies of different tem-peratures for the development of apricot fruit. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 62:173-183.  

3. CMSA (Citrus Marketing and Shipping Association). 2012. Citrus marketing and shipping analysis harvested in 2012. Citrus Marketing and Shipping Association, Jeju, Korea.  

4. Davies, F.S. and L.G. Albrigo. 1994. Environmental constraints on growth, development and physiology of citrus, p.52-82. In: Crop Production Science in Horticulture 2 - Citrus. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.  

5. Fishler, M., E.E. Goldschmidt, and S.P. Monselise. 1983. Leaf area and fruit size on girdled grapefruit branches. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 108:218-221.   

6. Ge, Z.M., X. Zhou, S. Kellomäki, K.Y. Wang, H. Peltola, and P.J. Martikainen. 2011. Responses of leaf photosynthesis, pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence within canopy position in a boreal grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) to elevated temperature and CO under varying water regimes. Photosynthetica 49: 172-184.  

7. Ge, Z.M., X. Zhou, S. Kellomäki, C. Zhang, H. Peltola, P.J. Martikainen, and K.Y. Wang. 2012. Acclimation of photosynthesis in a boreal grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) under different temperature, CO, and soil water regimes. Photosynthetica 50:141-151.   

8. Guo, Y.P., S.S. Hong, L.C. Zhang, and Y.G. Shen. 2000. Responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence to different low temperature in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Acta Phytophys. Sin. 26:88-94.  

9. Han, S.H. and J.H. Kang. 2011. Effect of water states of fruit vesicle and leaf on fruit quality in ‘Trifoliate’ orange and ‘Swingle citrumelo’ rootstock of ‘Shiranuhi’ [(Citrus unshin × C. sinensis) × C. reticulata] mandarin hybrid, M16 A line in plastic film house cultivation. J. Bio-Environ. Cont. 20:204-210.  

10. Inoue, H. 1990a. Effects of temperature on bud dormancy and flower bud differentiation in satsuma mandarin. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 58:919-926.   

11. Inoue, H. 1990b. Effects of exposing satsuma mandarin trees grown under low temperature regimes in winter and early spring on flower bud development and flowering. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 59:215-223.   

12. Inoue, H. and Y. Harada. 1988. Tree growth and nutrient absorption of young satsuma mandarins under different temperature conditions. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 57:1-7.   

13. Iwasaki, N. and C. Oogaki. 1985. Photosynthetic characteristics of some citrus species under various temperatures and light conditions. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 54:315-322.   

14. JCGAC (Jeju Citrus Growers Agricultural Cooperative). 2000. Principal Citrus Variety in Jeju. Jeju Citrus Growers’ Agricultural Cooperative, Jeju, Korea.  

15. JRMO (Jeju Regional Meteorological Office). 2012. Meteorological Compendium in 2012. Jeju Regional Meteorological Office, Jeju, Korea.   

16. Kawase, K. 1999. Cultivation of Dekopon. Rural Cult. Assn., Tokyo, Japan.  

17. Kitazono, K. 2001. A higher value-added technical development for sustainable production and improvement of fruit quality of ‘Shiranuhi’. Kyushu Agr. Res. 63:17-20.   

18. Lee, S.H., H.S. Kim, S.W. Cho, J.S. Lee, and J.S. Koh. 2006. Quality properties of Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan) cultivated with heating. Kor. J. Food Preserv. 13:538-542.  

19. Lindsey, A.A. and J.E. Netman. 1956. Use of official weather data in spring time temperature analysis of an Indiana pheno-logical record. Ecology 37:812-823.  

20. Matsumoto, K., S. Chikaizumi, I.O. Hoe, and J. Watanabe. 1972. Studies on the contribution of environmental and internal factors affecting the edible quality and exterior appearance of satsuma mandarin fruits. I. Estimation of the contribution of some factors influencing the total soluble solids and free acid content of juice. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 41:171-178.  

21. Matsumoto, R. 2001. ‘Shiranuhi’, a late-maturing citrus cultivar. Bull. Natl. Inst. Fruit Tree Sci. 35:115-120.   

22. Morioka, S. 1988. Influence of fruit load and fruit thinning on fruit growth, fruit characters, shoot growth and flower bud formation in the following season in mature Satsuma mandarin trees. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 57:351-359.  

23. Moon, D.G., S.W. Ko, S.G. Han, Y.H. Choi, and Y.H. Kim. 2008. Sugar and acid contents in different portions of ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin fruit as affected by water stress. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 49:216-220.  

24. Moon, Y.E. and C.M. Kim. 2001. Studies on investigation of factor and preventing of fruit splitting in satsuma mandarin in plastic film house. Bull. Jeju Agr. Exp. Stn. p. 162-175.  

25. Moon, Y.E., C.M. Kim, K.S. Kim, S.H. Yun, J.H. Park, H.J. An, D.H. Lee, and D.K. Moon. 2010. Effect of rootstock on the tree growth and fruit quality of ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin hybrid in plastic film house. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28:65-69.  

26. Nii, N., K. Harada, and K. Kadowaki. 1970. Effects of temperature on the fruit growth and quality of satsuma oranges. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 39:19-27.   

27. Oh, S., K.H. Moon, I.C. Son, E.Y. Song, and S.C. Koh. 2015. Photosynthesis of Chinese cabbage and radish in response to rising leaf temperature during spring. Hort. Environ. Biotechnol. 56:159-166.  

28. Okada, N. 1985. The effect of temperature conditions during bud stage on the nitrogen uptake for navel orange (C. sinensis Osb.). Bull. Shizuoka Citrus Exp. Stn. 21:49-51.  

29. Ono, S. and H. Daito. 1982. Studies on photosynthesis and productive structure of satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) - 4. Difference by area in intra-canopic photosynthetic action and development of fruits. Bull. Shikoku Agr. Exp. Stn. 40:59-77.   

30. Poerwanto, R. and H. Inoue. 1990. Effects of air and soil tem-peratures in autumn on flower induction and some physiological responses of satsuma mandarin. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 59: 207-214.  

31. Reuther, W., E.M. Nauer, and L. Summers. 1973. Effects of seasonal temperature regimes on development and maturation of citrus fruits. Proc. Int. Soc. Citric. 3:63-71.  

32. Song, H.S., Y.H. Park, and D.K. Moon. 2005. Volatile flavor properties of Hallabong grown in open field and green house by GC/GC-MS and sensory evaluation. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34:1239-1245.   

33. Stover, E. 2000. Relationship of flowering intensity and cropping in fruit species. HortTechnology 10:729-732.  

34. Sun, Z. and X. Ma. 1999. Thermo stability of plasma membrane in citrus leaves. J. Huangzhong Agric. Univ. 18:375-377.   

35. Susanto, S. and Y. Nakajima. 1990. Effects of winter heating on flowering time, fruiting and fruit development in pummelo grown under plastic house. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 59:245-253.  

36. Takagi, T., I. Sawano, T. Suzuki, and S. Okamoto. 1982. Effects of temperature before and after flowering on the development of flower and fruit in Citrus unshiu Marc. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 51:257-262.   

37. Vu, J.C.V. and G. Yelenosky. 1987. Photosynthetic characteristics in leaves of ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) grown under high and low temperature regimes. Environ. Exp. Bot. 27:279-287.   

38. Yamanishi, O.K. 1994. Effect of spring day/night temperature on flower development, fruit set and fruit quality on strangulated pummelo trees. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 63:493-504.  

39. Zhou, X., Z.M. Ge, S. Kellomäki, K.Y. Wang, H. Peltola, and P.J. Martikainen. 2011. Effects of elevated CO and temperature on leaf characteristics, photosynthesis and carbon storage in aboveground biomass of a boreal bioenergy crop (Phalaris arundinacea L.) under varying water regimes. Global Change Biol. Bioenerg. 3:223-234.