Article | 04. 2015 Vol. 33, Issue. 2
Effect of Developmental Stages on Glucosinolate Contents in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)



Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, Chungnam National University,1
Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University2
Department of Horticultural Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), Rural Development Administration (RDA)3
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University4
Department of Horticultural Science, Chungnam National University5




2015.04. 177:185


PDF XML




The aim of this study was to investigate the amounts of glucosinolates (GSL) in kale at various development stages. Kale varieties ‘Manchoo Collard’ and ‘TBC’ were cultivated from 20 February 2012 to 3 July 2013 in the greenhouse at Chungnam National University. During the cultivation periods, samples were harvested at 35, 63, 91, 105, 119, and 133 days after sowing (DAS) and the amount of GSL quantified by HPLC. Ten types of GSL (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucoiberverin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin) were observed in ‘TBC’, whereas nine types of GSL (the same as above, except glucoiberverin) were identified in ‘Manchoo Collard’. The amount of total GSL in ‘Manchoo Collard’ was comparatively higher at 133 DAS (mean 8.64 μmol・g-1) and lower at 35 DAS (1.16 μmol・g-1 dry weight, DW) of cultivation. In the case of ‘TBC’, the amount of GSL was higher at 91 DAS (mean 13.41 μmol・g-1) and lower at 35 DAS (0.31 μmol・g-1 dry weight, DW). Sinigrin was the most abundant GSL (57% of total GSL) in ‘Manchoo Collard’ at 133 DAS and was also highest (44%) in ‘TBC’ at 91 DAS. Together, progoitrin, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin, the precursor of crambene, allylisothiocyanate, indol-3-cabinol, and phenethylisothiocyanate accounted for 94 and 78% of GSL in ‘Manchoo Collard’ and ‘TBC’, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the amounts of GSL, which have potential anti-carcinogenic activity, change during development in kale.



1. Agerbirk, N. and C.E. Olsen. 2012. Glucosinolate structures in evolution. Phytochemistry 77:16-45.  

2. Cartea, M.E., P. Velasco, S. Obregón, G. Padilla, and A. de Haro. 2008. Seasonal variation in glucosinolate content in Brassica oleracea crops grown in northwestern Spain. Phytochemistry 69:403-410.  

3. Choi, Y.H., K.Y. Park, S.M. Lee, M.A. Yoo, and W.H. Lee. 1995. Inhibitory effect of the fresh juice of kale on the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1. Korean J. Genetic. 17:183-190.  

4. Clarke, D.B. 2010. Glucosinolates, structures and analysis in food. Anal. Methods 2:310-325.  

5. Fahey, J.W., A.T. Zalcmann, and P. Talalay. 2001. The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry 56:5-51.  

6. Goncalves, Á.L.M., M. Lemos, R. Niero, S.F. de Andrade, and E.L. Maistro. 2012. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C. in different cells of mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 143:740-745.  

7. Hagen, S.F., G.I.A Borge, K.A. Solhaug, and G.B. Bengtsson. 2009. Effect of cold storage and harvest date on bioactive compounds in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Postharvest Biol. Technol. 51:36-42.  

8. Halkier, B.A. and L. Du. 1997. The biosynthesis of glucosinolates. Trends Plant Sci. 2:425-431.  

9. Halvorsen, B.L., K. Holte, M.C.W. Myhrstad, I. Barikmo, E. Hvattum, S.F. Remberg, A.B. Wold, K. Haffner, H. Baugerød, L.F. Andersen, Ø. Moskaug, D.R. Jr. Jacobs DR. and R. Blomhoff. 2002. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. J. Nutr. 132:461-471.  

10. Higdon, J.V., B. Delage, D.E. Williams, and R.H. Dashwood. 2007. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol. Res. 55:224-236.  

11. Hwang, E.S., E.Y. Hong and G.H Kim. 2012. Determination of bioactive compounds and anti-biocancer effect from extracts of Korean cabbage and cabbage. Korean J. Food Nutr. 25:259-265.  

12. International Standards Organization. 1992. Rapeseed: Determination of glucosinolates. Part 1: Method using High performance liquid chromatography, p. 1-9. In: ISO 9167-1. Geneva, Switzerland.  

13. Keck, A.S. and J.W. Finley. 2004. Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integr. Cancer Ther. 3:5-12.  

14. Kim, S.J., C. Kawaharada, S. Jin, M. Hashimoto, G. Ishii, and H. Yamauchi. 2007. Structural elucidation of 4-(cystein-S-yl)butyl glucosinolate from the leaves of Eruca sativa. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 71:114-121.  

15. Kim, Y.S. and J.A. Milner. 2005. Targets for indole-3-carbinol in cancer prevention. J. Nutr. Biochem. 16:65-73.  

16. Kushad, M.M., A.F. Brown, A.C. Kurilich, J.A. Juvik, B.P. Klein, M.A. Wallig, and E.H. Jeffery. 1999. Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:1541-1548.  

17. Kushad, M.M., R. Cloyd, and M. Babadoost. 2004. Distribution of glucosinolates in ornamental cabbage and kale cultivars. Sci. Hortic. 101:215-221.  

18. Lee, S.M., S.H. Rhee, and K.Y. Park. 1997. Antimutagenic effect of various cruciferous vegetables in salmonella assaying system. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 12:321-327.  

19. Lim, H.S. 2002. The study for contents of sinigrin in dolsan leaf mustard kimchi during fementation periods. Korean J. Life Sci. 12:523-527.  

20. Magrath, R., F. Bano, M. Morgner, I. Parkin, A. Sharpe, C. Lister, C. Dean, J. Turner, D. Lydiate, and R. Mithen. 1994. Genetics of aliphatic glucosinolates. I. Side chain elongation in Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Heredity 72: 290-299.  

21. Podsędek, A. 2007. Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40:1-11.  

22. Sun, B., N. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Yan, and Q. Wang. 2011. Variation of glucosinolates in three edible parts of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) varieties. Food Chem. 124:941-947.  

23. Zhang, Y. and P. Talalay. 1994. Anticarcinogenic activities of organic isothiocyanates: Chemistry and mechanisms. Cancer Res. 54:1976-1981.  

24. Zhang, Z., J.A. Ober, and D.J. Kliebenstein. 2006. The gene controlling the quantitative trait locus epithiospecifier modifier1 alters glucosinolate hydrolysis and insect resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18:1524-1536.