Department of Horticulture, College of Science and Technology, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, Korea1
Research was initiated to investigate root growth characteristics of major cool-season grasses (CSG) and to collect basic information useful for sports turf design, construction and maintenance. Several turfgrasses were evaluated in the USGA (United States Golf Association) soil system. Turfgrass entries were comprised 3 blends and 3 mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Significant differences were found in root growth, rooting potential and rooting development. These characteristics increased with time after seeding, but varied with establishment stages. In early stage, root length was highest with PR, intermediate with TF and lowest with KB. Evaluation in a middle stage indicated that root growth was similar to early-stage evaluation, but decreased by 13 to 31% compared with early-stage values. Root growth of late stage increased by 34 to 85% over middle-stage root growth. Overall, thhere was not much difference in root length among treatments, with all except Mixture I reaching 22 cm in root length. Rooting potential ranking was variable with establishment stage, being PR > KB > TF in early stage, PR > TF > KB in middle stage and TF > PR > KB in late stage. At the end of the study, TF was rated best for rooting development, followed by PR and finally KB. Our results showed that TF was the best species in regard to overall rooting characteristics. TF exhibited excellent rooting development with time after establishment. Bunch-type PR showed fast root growth in the early stage, but rooting quality characteristics decreased with time, especially for rooting development. By contrast, rhizomatous-type KB was poor in early-stage root growth, but rooting characteristics improved with time after establishment. These variations in rooting characteristics among CSGs were considered to arise from differences in establishment vigor, growth habit and genetic characteristics. Information on root growth, rooting potential and rooting development by establishment stages will be useful for sports turf design, construction and maintenance.
1. Adams, W.A. and R.J. Gibbs. 1994. Natural turf for sports and amenity: Science and practice. CAB International, Cambridge, UK.
2. Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.
3. Beard, J.B. and H.J. Beard. 2005. Beard’s turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns and sports fields. Michigan State Univ. Press, East Lansing, MI, USA.
4. Cockerham, S.T. 1994. Rootzone mixes, turfgrass selection, and maintenance on the world cup soccer fields in the USA, p. 31-43. In: Proc. Intl. Symp. Soccer Field, The Committee of International Symposium on Soccer Field, Tokyo, Japan.
5. Fry, J. and B. Huang. 2004. Applied turfgrass science and physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
6. Hanson, A.A., F.V. Juska, and G.W. Burton. 1969. Species and varieties. Agron. Monogr. 14:370-409. In: A.A. Hanson and F.V. Juska (eds.), Turfgrass science. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.
7. Harper, II, J.C. 1969. Athletic fields. Agron. Monogr. 14:542-561. In: A.A. Hanson and F.V. Juska (eds.). Turfgrass science. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.
8. Jung, K.W. 2010. Study on the effect of overseeding cool-season grass onto Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). MS Thesis, Sahmyook Univ., Seoul, Korea.
9. Kim, K.N. 2005. Comparison of summer turf performance, color and green color retention among cool-season grasses grown under USGA soil system. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 33(5):18-30.
10. Kim, K.N. 2006. STM Series II: Turfgrass management. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea.
11. Kim, K.N. 2009. Effect of soil organic amendment mixtures with water-absorbing polymer on growth characteristics in Poa pratensis L. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 23:317-330.
12. Kim, B.J. 2011. Study on the effect of seeding time, turfgrass and soil system on the growth characteristics and soil physical properities. MS Thesis, Sahmyook Univ., Seoul, Korea.
13. Kim, K.N. 2012. STM Series I: Introductory turfgrass science. 2nd ed. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea.
14. Kim, K.N. 2013. STM Series III: Turfgrass establishment. 2nd ed. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea.
15. Kim, K.N., J.S. Choi, and S.Y. Nam. 2003a. Turf performance of warm-season grass and cool-season grass grown in multi- layer system, USGA system and mono-layer system for athletic field. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44:539-544.
16. Kim, K.N., R. Goss, S.H. Park and S.R. Shim. 2013. A greenhouse study comparing local soil amendments with overseas peats as an organic source for rootzone mixes in Korea. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 12:819-823.
17. Kim, K.N. and K.W. Jung. 2009. Germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern of 8 new varieties of perennial ryegrass under alternative conditions required by ISTA. J. Korean Env. Res. Reveg. Tech. 12(3):72-82.
18. Kim, K.N., O.D. Kwon, and S.Y. Nam. 1998a. A study on the adaptive performance of cool-season sports turf in Korea. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 3(3):61-76.
19. Kim, K.N. and S.Y. Nam. 2001. Comparison of cool-season turfgrass performance under the transition climate of Korea. Agron. Abstr. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Charlotte, NC, USA.
20. Kim, K.N. and S.Y. Nam. 2003. Comparison of early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate of varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L., and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grown under different growing conditions. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17:1-12.
21. Kim, K.N. and W.K. Park. 2003. A study on cultural practices, growth rate and time to harvest in sod production of cool-season grass grown under pure sand soil. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 8(1):19-33.
22. Kim, K.N., W.K. Park and S.Y. Nam. 2003b. Comparison of establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality of sods of Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue and cool-season grass mixtures grown in sand soil. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17:129-146.
23. Kim, K.N. and S.R. Shim. 2003. Comparison of soil surface hardness, soil compaction, and infiltration rate of warm-season and cool-season grasses grown under athletic field soil systems. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44:991-997.
24. Kim, K.N., S.R. Shim, P.S. Yoon, S.K. Han, C.U. Cho, and K.W. Han. 1998b. Sports turf recommendation for soccer field with investigation of athletic fields in Japan, Germany, and USA. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 3(3):51-60.
25. Korea Sport Science Institute (KISS). 1998. Establishment and maintenance of turfgrass ground. Dongweonsa, Seoul, Korea.
26. Korean World Cup Organizing Committee (KOWOC). 1999. Survey for athletic fields in Japan and Europe for the construction of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan, Seoul, Korea.
27. Korean World Cup Organizing Committee (KOWOC). 2000a. Comprehensive project report on the establishment of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/ Japan, Seoul, Korea.
28. Korean World Cup Organizing Committee (KOWOC). 2000b. Guidelines to the establishment and maintenance of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan, Seoul, Korea.
29. Lee, J.W. 1997. Characteristics and domestic planting cases of German turfgrass. Environ. Landscape Architecture Kor. 108:144-148.
30. Lee, J.P, S.J. Kim, H.Y. Seo, I.S. Han, S.J. Lee, T.J. Kim, and D.H. Kim. 2001a. The effect of shade net on summer stress of cool-season turfgrass. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 15:51-64.
31. Lee, H.J., J.W. Song, and J.H. Ku. 2001b. Effect of root zone cooling on growth and mineral contents of turfgrasses in simulated athletic field during summer season. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 15:169-179.
32. Madison, J.H. 1966. Optimum rates of seeding turfgrass. Agron. J. 58:442-443.
33. Meyer, W.A. and E. Watkins. 2003. Tall fescue (Festuca aruninacea), p. 107-127. In: M.D. Casler and R.R. Duncan (eds.). Turfgrass bology, genetics, and breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
34. Park, W.K. 2011. Effect of seeding rates on the growth, turf performance and sod quality in Kentucky bluegrass grown in USGA soil system. MS Thesis, Sahmyook Univ., Seoul, Korea.
35. Park, S.H. 2012. Comparison of germination, early establishment, and growth characteristics in warm-season grasses and cool- season grasses. MS Thesis, Sahmyook Univ., Seoul, Korea.
36. Puhalla, J., J. Krans, and M. Goatley. 2002. Sports fields: A manual for design, construction and maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
37. SAS Institute Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT user’s guide: Statistics version 8.00, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
38. Shim, S.R. 1992. Korean sports turf. Grounds Maintenance June p. 66-68.
39. Shim, S.R. 1996. Characteristics, uses, and establishment method of cool-season grasses of four-season green color. Environ. Landscape Architecture Kor. 97:148-153.
40. Shim, S.R. and D.Y. Jeong. 2002a. Physical properties of soil and turfgrass wear characteristics of soccer fields: A simulation of the Incheon 2002 world cup stadium. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 30(1):96-104.
41. Shim, S.R. and D.Y. Jeong. 2002b. Turfgrass selection for soccer fields-A simulation of the Incheon 2002 world cup stadium. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 30(2):88-94.
42. Shim, S.R., D.Y. Jeong, and K.N. Kim. 2000. Planting foundations and turfgrass species adapted to grounds. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 28(2):61-70.
43. Shim, S.R. and D.Y. Yeam. 1983. Rootzone construction for athletic turf area. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 11(1):35-43.
44. Skogley, C.R. and C.D. Sawyer. 1992. Field research. Agron. Monogr. 32:589-614.
45. Snow, J.T. 1993. The whys and hows of revising the USGA greeen construction recommendations. USGA Green Section Record 31(2):4-6.
46. Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.
47. Thorogood, D. 2003. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), p. 75-105. In: M.D. Casler and R.R. Duncan (eds.), Turfgrass bology, genetics, and breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
48. Turgeon, A.J. 2005. Turfgrass management. 7th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
49. USGA Green Section Staff. 1973. USGA sections specifications for putting green construction. USGA Green Section Record 11(3):1-8.
50. USGA Green Section Staff. 1993. USGA recommendations for a method of putting green construction. USGA Green Section Record 31(3):1-3.
51. Watschke, T.L. and R.E. Schmidt. 1992. Ecological aspects of the turf communities. Agron. Monogr. 32:129-174.