Technology Services Division, National Institute of Horticulture & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration1
Department of Horticulture, Daegu University2
Institute of Life and Environment, Daegu University3
Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University4
Apple Research Institute, National Institute of Horticulture & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration5
Well-feathered (over 10 feathers) ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees were planted at 3.0 × 1.0 m and trained to slender spindle with 2.5 m height or to tall spindle with 3.5 m height, and the vegetative growth, productivity, and fruit quality of two training systems were compared for 8 years. The canopy volume of the tall spindle trees surpassed that of the slender spindle trees 4 years after planting and was 25% larger than that of the slender spindle trees 5 years after planting. The accumulated yield over 8 years for the tall spindle system was 14% higher than that of the slender spindle system. Alternate bearing and incidence of marssonina blotch were observed in both treatments after 5 years of planting. There was often vegetative imbalance in the trees however, the degree of yield loss and vegetative imbalance of the tall spindle trees was lower than those of the slender spindle trees. Soluble solid content and fruit red color of the tall spindle trees were higher than that of the slender spindle trees in 5 year after planting, resulting from increased light penetration in the canopy due to even distribution of lateral branches and from fruit bearing in different height locations of the trees. In conclusion, increasing the tree height to about 3.5 m using slender spindle ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees planted with over 333 trees per 10a led to better light penetration, yield and fruit quality compared to a conventional wide training system with the slender spindle.
1. Barritt, B.H. 1992. Intensive orchard management. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.
2. Barritt, B.H. 1998. Orchard management systems for Fuji apples in Washington state. Compact Fruit Tree. 31(1):11-13.
3. Barden, J.A. and G.H. Neilsen. 2003. Selecting the orchard site, site preparation and orchard planning and establishment. p. 237-265. In: D.C Ferree and I.J. Warrington (eds.). Apples; botany, production and uses. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA.
4. Callesen, O. 1993. Influence of apple tree height on yield and fruit quality. Acta Hortic. 349:111-115.
5. Callesen, O. and P.S. Wagenmakers. 1989. Effect of tree density, tree height and rectangularity on growth, flowering, and fruit production. Acta Hortic. 243:141-148.
6. Choi, S.W., D.H. Sagong, Y.Y. Song, and T.M. Yoon. 2009. Optimum crop load of ‘Fuji’/M.9 young apple trees. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 27:547-553.
7. Costa, G., E. Beltrame, P. Eccher, and A. Pianezzola. 1997. High density planted apple orchards: Effects on yield, performance and fruit quality. Acta Hortic. 451:505-511.
8. Hampson, C.R., F. Kappel, H.A. Quamme, and R.T. Brounlee. 1997. Varying density with constant rectangularity: Effects on apple tree performance and yield in three training systems. Acta Hortic. 451:437-442.
9. Hampson, C.R., H.A. Quamme, F. Kappel, and R.T. Brownlee. 2004a. Varying density with constant rectangularity: I. Effects on apple tree growth and light interception in three training systems over ten years. HortScience 39:501-506.
10. Hampson, C.R., H.A. Quamme, F. Kappel, and R.T. Brownlee. 2004b. Varying density with constant rectangularity: II. Effects on apple tree yield, fruit size, and fruit color development in three training systems over ten years. HortScience 39:507-511.
11. Jackson, J.E. 1980. Light interception and utilization by orchard systems. Hortic. Rev. 2:208-267.
12. Kon, T.M., J.R. Schupp, H.E. Winzeler, and R.P, Marini. 2013. Influence of mechanical thinning treatment on vegetative and reproductive tissue, fruit set, yield, and fruit quality ‘Gala’ apple. HortScience 48:40-46.
13. Marini, R.P., J.A. Barden, J.A. Cline, R.L. Perry, and T. Robinson. 2002. Effect of apple rootstocks on average ‘Gala’ fruit weight at four locations after adjusting for crop load. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:749-753.
14. Ogata, R., K. Goto, T. Kunisawa, and R. Harada. 1986. Productivity and fruit quality of four apple cultivars on three different rootstocks and at different planting densities. Acta Hortic. 160:97-104.
15. Palmer J.W., D.J. Avery, and S.J. Wertheim. 1992. Effects of apple tree spacing and summer pruning on leaf area distribution and light interception. Sci. Hortic. 52:303-312.
16. Park, M.Y. 2004. Studies on establishment of high density orchard system with slender spindle form ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees. Ph.D. Diss., Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan, Korea.
17. Park, M.Y., J.K. Park, S.J. Yang, H.H. Han, I.K. Kang, and J.K. Byun. 2008. Proper tree vigor and crop load in high density planting system for ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees. J. Bio-Environ. Cont. 17:306-311.
18. Park, M.Y., D.H. Sagong, H.J. Kweon, Y.S. Do, Y.Y. Song, and D.H. Lee. 2013. Influence of seasonal incidence and defoliation degree of marssonina blotch on fruit quality and shoot growth of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 31:523-530.
19. Robinson, T.L. and Lakso, A. N. 1991. Bases of yield and production efficiency in apple orchard systems. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 116:188-194.
20. Robinson, T.L. 2003. Apple-orchard planting systems. p. 351-353, 382-385, and 392-393. In: D.C Ferree and I.J. Warrington (eds.). Apples; botany, production and uses. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA.
21. Robinson, T.L., A.N. Lakso, and S. G. Carpenter. 1991. Canopy development, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Empire’ and ‘Delicious’ apple trees grown in four orchard production systems for ten years. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 116:179-187.
22. Robinson, T.L., S.A. Hoying., and G.H. Reginato, 2006. The tall spindle apple production system. New York Fruit Quarterly. 14:21-28.
23. Sagong, D.H., H.J. Kweon, Y.Y. Song, M.Y. Park, J.C. Nam, S.B. Kang, and S.G. Lee. 2011. Influence of defoliation of marssonina blotch on vegetative growth and fruit quality in ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 29:531-538.
24. Sansavini, S. and L. Corell-Grappadelli. 1997. Yield and light efficiency for high quality fruit in apple and peach high density planting. Acta Hortic. 451:559-568.
25. Tustin, D.S., P.M. Hirst, W.M. Cashmore, I.J. Warrington, and C.J. Stanley. 1993. Spacing and rootstock studies with central leader apple canopies in a high vigour environment. Acta Hortic. 349:169-177.
26. Wang, H. and L. Cheng. 2011. Differential effects of nitrogen supply on skin pigmentation and flesh starch breakdown of ‘Gala’ apple. HortScience 46:1116-1120.
27. Wagenmakers, P.S and O. Callesen. 1989. Influence of light interception on apple yield and fruit quality related to arrangement and tree height. Acta Hortic. 243:149-158.
28. Wagenmakers, P.S and O. Callesen. 1995. Light distribution in apple orchard systems in relation to production and fruit quality. J. Hort. Sci. 70:935-948.
29. Wertheim, S.J. 2005. Planting system and tree shape. p. 190-195 and 198-199. In: J. Tromp, J.T. Webster, and S.J. Wertheim. (eds.). Fundamentals of temperate zone tree fruit production. Backhuys publishers, Leiden.
30. Yang, S.J., M.Y. Park, Y.Y. Song, D.H. Sagong, and T.M. Yoon. 2009. Influence of tree height on vegetative growth, productivity, and labour in slender spindle of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees. J. Bio-Environ. Control. 18:492-501.
31. Yang, S.J., M.Y. Park, Y.Y. Song, D.H. Sagong, and T.M. Yoon. 2010. Evaluation of early productivity of high density ‘Fuji’ apple orchards by planting well-feathered trees/M.9 EMLA. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28:374-380.
32. Yoon, T.M., H.Y. Park, and D.H. Sagong. 2005. Effect of root pruning on tree growth and fruit quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 23:275-291.