Article | 02. 2015 Vol. 33, Issue. 1
Development of Efficient Screening Methods for Melon Plants Resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

Research Center for Biobased Chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology1
Department of Plant Medicine, Chungbuk National University2

2015.02. 70:82


This study was conducted to establish an efficient screening system to identify melon resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. F. oyxsporum f. sp. melonis GR was isolated from infected melon plants collected at Goryeong and identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis based on morphological characteristics, molecular analyses, and host-specificity tests on cucurbits including melon, oriental melon, cucumber, and watermelon. In addition, the GR isolate was determined as race 1 based on resistance responses of melon differentials to the fungus. To select optimized medium for mass production of inoculum of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis GR, six media were tested. The fungus produced the most spores (microconidia) in V8-juice broth. Resistance degrees to the GR isolate of 22 commercial melon cultivars and 6 rootstocks for melon plants were investigated. All tested rootstocks showed no symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Among the tested melon cultivars, only three cultivars were susceptible and the other cultivars displayed moderate to high resistance to the GR isolate. For further study, six melon cultivars (Redqueen, Summercool, Superseji, Asiapapaya, Eolukpapaya, and Asiahwanggeum) showing different degrees of resistance to the fungus were selected. The development of Fusarium wilt on the cultivars was tested according to several conditions such as plant growth stage, root wounding, dipping period of roots in spore suspension, inoculum concentration, and incubation temperature to develop the disease. On the basis of the test results, we suggest that an efficient screening method for melon plants resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis is to remove soil from roots of seven-day-old melon seedlings, to dip the seedlings without cutting in spore suspension of 3 × 105 conidia/mL for 30 min, to transplant the inoculated seedlings to plastic pots with horticulture nursery media, and then to cultivate the plants in a growth room at 25 to 28°C for about 3 weeks with 12-hour light per day.

1. Banihashemi, Z. and D.J. DeZeeuw. 1975. The behavior of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in the presence and absence of host plants. Phytopathology 65:1212-1217.  

2. Bouhot, D. 1981. Some aspects of the pathogenic potential in formae speciales and races of Fusarium oxysporum on Cucurbitaceae, p. 318-326. In: P.E. Nelson, T.A. Toussoun, and R.J. Cook (eds.). Fusarium: disease, biology, and taxonomy. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.  

3. Cafri, D., J. Katan, and T. Katan. 2005. Cross-pathogenicity between formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum, the pathogens of cucumber and melon. J. Phytopathol. 153:615-622.  

4. Cha, H.S., A.R. Youn, S.A. Lee, K.H. Kwon, B.S. Kim, and D.J. Choi. 2013. Effects of the initial storage temperature of a PA film-packaged muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) during its storage. Kor. J. Food Preserv. 20:14-22.  

5. Chun, J. 1995. Computer-assisted classification and identification of Actinomycetes. Ph.D. thesis. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.  

6. Cohen, R., T. Katan, J. Katan, and R. Cohn. 1989. Occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1,2 on muskmelon in Israel. Phytoparasitica 17:319-322.  

7. Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783-791.  

8. Freeman, S. and R.J. Rodriquez. 1993. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on cucurbits. Plant Dis. 77: 1198-1201.  

9. Freeman, S., A. Zveibil, H. Vintal, and M. Maymon. 2002. Isolation of nonpathogenic mutants of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis for biological control of Fusarium wilt in cucurbits. Phytopathology 92:164-168.  

10. Geiser, D.M., M. del M. Jiménez-Gasco, S. Kang, I. Makalowska, N. Veeraraghavan, T.J. Ward, N. Zhang, G.A. Kuldau, and K. O’Donnell. 2004. FUSARIUM-ID v. 1.0: A DNA sequence database for identifying Fusarium. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110: 473-479.   

11. Gerlach, M. and W.J. Blok. 1988. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucurbitacearum embracing all formae speciales of F. oxysporum attacking Cucurbitaceae. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 94:17-31.  

12. Jacobson, D.J. and T.R. Gordon. 1988. Vegetative compatibility and self-incompatibility within Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Phytopathology 78:668-672.  

13. Kimura, M. 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Evol. 16:111-120.  

14. Kuc, J. 1987. Plant immunization and its applicability for disease control, p. 255-273. In: I. Chet (ed.). Innovative approaches to plant disease control. John Wiley, New York.   

15. Kuc, J. 1994. Induced systemic resistance, a non-pesticide technology for disease control in plant, p. 511-518. In: D.L. Weigmann (ed.). Proc. 4th. Nat. Conf. pesticides. Blacksburg, Virginia.  

16. Latin, R.X. and S.J. Snell. 1986. Comparison of methods for inoculation of muskmelon with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Plant Dis. 70:297-300.  

17. Leary, J.V. and W.D. Wilbur. 1976. Identification of the races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis causing wilt of muskmelon in California. Phytopathology 66:15-16.  

18. Martyn, R.D. and T.R. Gordon. 1996. Fusarion wilt of melon, p. 14-15. In: T.A. Zitter, D.L. Hopkins, and C.E. Thomas (eds.). Compendium of cucurbit diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN.  

19. Matsumoto, Y., T. Ogawara, M. Miyagi, N. Watanabe, and T. Kuboyama. 2011. Response of wild Cucumis species to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1,2y. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80:414-419.  

20. Namiki, F., K. Shimizu, K. Satou, T. Hirabayashi, K. Nishi, T. Kayamura, and T. Tsuge. 2000. Occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in Japan. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66:12-17.  

21. Namiki, F., T. Shiomi, K. Nishi, T. Kayamura, and T. Tsuge. 1998. Pathogenic and genetic variation in the Japanese strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Phytopathology 88: 804-810.  

22. Nelson, P. E., T.A. Toussoun, and W.F.O. Marasas. 1983. Fusarium species. An illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, University Park.   

23. O’Donnell, K.O., E. Cigelnik, and H.H. Casper. 1998. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological and mycotoxin data support reidentification of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus as Fusarium venenatum. Fungal Genet. Biol. 23:57-67.  

24. Owen, J.H. 1955. Fusarium wilt of cucumber. Phytopathology 45:435-439.  

25. Risser, G., Z. Banihashemi, and D.W. Davis. 1976. A proposed nomenclature of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis races and resistance genes in Cucumis melo. Phytopatholoy 66: 1105-1106.  

26. Rural Development Administration (RDA). 2006. Food composition table. 7th ed. RDA, Suwon, Korea.  

27. Thompson, J.D., D.G. Higgins, and T.J. Gibson. 1994. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res. 22: 4673-4680.  

28. Wagacha, J.M., U. Steiner, H.W. Dehne, S. Zuehlke, M. Spiteller, J. Muthomi, and E.C. Oerke. 2010. Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya. J. Phytopathol. 158:527-535.   

29. White, T.J., T. Bruns, S. Lee, and J. Taylor. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, p. 315-322. In: M.A. Innis, D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky, and T.J. White (eds.). PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego.  

30. Zhou, X.G. and K.L. Everts. 2007. Characterization of a regional population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum by race, cross pathogenicity, and vegetative compatibility. Phytopathology 97:461-469.  

31. Zuniga, T.L., J.P. Jantz, T.A. Zitter, and M.M. Jahn. 1999. Monogenic dominant resistance to gummy stem blight in two melon (Cucumis melo) accessions. Plant Dis. 83:1105-1107.