Seed Testing Research Center, Korea Seed & Variety Service1
Vegetable Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science2
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University3
Plant Variety Protection Division, Korea Seed & Variety Service4
Seed viability is affected by storage conditions and rapid loss of viability in storage is the major cause for low germination. This study was carried out to examine the effect of packaging materials and storage temperature on seed germination rate over 10 years in two species (Capsicum annuum L. and Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) and determine effective storage conditions for maintaining seed viability. Seeds were packaged in aluminum poly pouches under vacuum, polyethylene bottles, and paper bags containing silica gel and stored under one of two controlled conditions (15°C, RH 40% or 5°C, RH 30%) or at ambient condition. Seed germination was recorded at 6-month intervals for 10 years. The seeds of both species showed no decline in viability until 6.5 years at 15 or 5°C, irrespective of packaging materials. However, under ambient conditions, the seeds of chili pepper and Chinese cabbage in paper bags lost viability after 4 and 5 years, respectively. By contrast, seeds of both species in vacuum-aluminum poly pouches exhibited a 99% germination rate after 6 years under ambient conditions. Pepper seeds in the vacuum-aluminum poly pouches maintained a 93% germination rate after 10 years in ambient conditions. These results indicated that a special seed storage facility for maintaining viability of chili pepper and Chinese cabbage seed might not be essential and seed testing would not be necessary for 10 years, if chili pepper and Chinese cabbage seeds were packed in ambient/vacuum-aluminum poly pouches or 5°C/vacuum-aluminum poly pouches.
1. Choi, B.H., B.H. Hong, K.H. Kang, J.K. Kim, S.H. Kim, and T.G. Min. 2001. Seed science. Hyangmoon publishing, Seoul, Korea.
2. Crisostomo, S., F.R. Hay, R. Reano, and T. Borromeo. 2011. Are the standard conditions for genebank drying optimal for rice seed quality? Seed Sci. Technol. 39:666-672.
3. Ellis, R.H. 1998. Longevity of seeds stored hermetically at low moisture contents. Seed Sci. Res. 8(Suppl. 1):9-10.
4. Ellis, R.H., T.D. Hong, D. Astley, A.E. Pinnegar, and H.L. Kraak. 1996. Survival of dry and ultra-dry seeds of carrot, groundnut, lettuce, oilseed rape and onion during five years’ hermetic storage at two temperatures. Seed Sci. Technol. 24:347-358.
5. Demir, I. and M. Ozcoban. 2007. Dry and ultra-dry storage of pepper, aubergine, winter squash, summer squash, bean, cowpea, okra, onion, leek, cabbage, radish, lettuce and melon seeds at -20°C and 20°C over five years. Seed Sci. Technol. 35:165-175.
6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (FAO/IPGRI). 1994. Genebank standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome.
7. Hong, T.D., R.H. Ellis, D. Astley, A.E. Pinnegar, S.P.C. Groot, and H.L. Kraak. 2005. Survival and vigour of ultra-dry seeds after ten years hermetic storage. Seed Sci. Technol. 33:449-460.
8. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 2001. International rules for testing. ISTA, Switzerland.
9. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 2003. ISTA handbook on seedling evaluation. ISTA, Switzerland.
10. Khan, F.R., K. UR-Rahman, N.K. Abbasi, M. Ibrahim, and G. Abbas. 2010. In vitro shoot and root proliferation of jack fruit as affected by different concentrations of growth regulators. Sarhad J. Agric. 26:533-538.
11. Perez-Garcia, F., M.E. Gonzalez-Benito, and C. Gomez-Campo. 2007. High viability recorded in ultra-dry seeds of 37 species of Brassicaceae after almost 40 years of storage. Seed Sci. Technol. 35:143-153.
12. Ramiro, M.C., F. Perez-garcia, and I. Aguinagalde. 1995. Effect of different seed storage conditions on germination and isozyme activity in some Brassica species. Ann. Bot. 75:579-585.
13. Roos, E.E. and D.A. Davidson. 1992. Record longevities of vegetable seeds in storage. HortScience 17:393-396.
14. Walters, C., L.M. Wheeler, and J.M. Grotenhuls. 2005. Longevity of seeds stored in a genebank: Species characteristics. Seed Sci. Res. 15:1-20.
15. Van Treuren, R. and E.C. de Groot. 2013. Preservation of seed viability during 25 years of storage under standard genebank conditions. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 60:1407-1421.
16. Vertucci, C.W. and E.E. Roos. 1993. Theoretical basis of protocols for seed storage II. The influence of temperature on optimal moisture levels. Seed Sci. Res. 3:201-213.
17. Yogeesha, H.S., K. Bhanuprakash, and L.B. Naik. 2008. Seed storability in three varieties of papaya in relation to seed moisture, packaging material and storage temperature. Seed Sci. Tecnol. 36:721-729.
18. Zheng, G.H, X.M. Jing, and K.L. Tao. 1998. Ultradry seed storage cuts cost of gene bank. Nature 393:223-224.