Department of Food & Nutrition, Duksung Women’s University1
Postharvest browning of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) reduces the shelf life of harvested mushrooms. Here, mushrooms were dipped in various solutions (distilled water; DW, 0.25% rice bran extract; RB, 0.1% ascorbic acid; AA, RB + AA) for 3 min. After air-drying at room temperature, the dipped mushrooms were packaged in a polypropylene (PP) films and stored at 4 or 15°C. The quality changes of mushrooms were measured in terms of color, gas composition, firmness, and sensory evaluation during storage. Rice bran extract was measured for total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging, chelating activity and PPO inhibition activity. No difference in firmness were found in the mushroom samples regardless of dipping solution or storage temperature. At both 4 and 15°C storage temperatures, RB + AA solution-dipped samples showed the highest L value and lowest delta E value. During the storage period, sensory evaluation showed that overall acceptability of mushrooms treated with RB and RB + AA solution was higher than that of the untreated mushrooms. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of 0.25% rice bran extract were 36.42 mg GAE･g-1 and 4.85 mg QE･g-1, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of 0.1% ascorbic acid was higher than that of 0.25% rice bran extract. The highest copper (Cu2+) chelating activity was found in the 0.25% rice bran extract. The PPO inhibition activity of 0.1% ascorbic acid was higher than that of 0.25% rice bran extract. Our results suggest that 0.25% rice bran extract with 0.1% ascorbic acid is effective anti-browning agent for maintaining quality of Agaricus bisporus during storage.
1. Badria, F.A. and M.A. elGayyar, 2001. A new type of tyrosinase inhibitors from natural products as potential treatments for hyperpigmentation. Boll. Chim. Farm. 140:267-271.
2. Blois, M.S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181:1199-1200.
3. Chang, M.S., D.U. Lee, S.D. Cho, C.S. Jhune, and G.H. Kim. 2012. Survey on packaging status and effects of precooling on the quality of Agaricus bisporus. Korean J. Food Preserv. 19:67-73.
4. Chang, M.S., M.J. Park, M.C. Jeong, D.M. Kim, and G.H. Kim. 2011. Antioxidative and antibrowning effects of Taraxacum platycarpum and Chrysanthemum indicum extracts as natural antibrowning agents. Korean J. Food Preserv. 18:584-589.
5. Chang, M.S., S. An, M.C. Jeong, D. Kim, and G.H. Kim. 2011. Effects of antioxidative activities and antibrowning of extracts from onion, apple and mandarin orange peel as natural antibrowning agents. Korean J. Food Nutr. 24:406-413.
6. Choi, H.I., B.K. Lee, and S.J. Kim. 2010. Study on the nutritional components of non-fermented rice bran and fermented rice bran. Korean J. Food Nutr. 23:1-7.
7. Choi, M.H. and G.H. Kim. 2003. Quality changes in oyster mushrooms during modified atmosphere storage as affected by temperatures and packaging materials. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35:1079-1085.
8. Choi, Y., H.S. Jeong, and J. Lee. 2007. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea. Food Chem. 103:130-138.
9. Coseteng, M.Y. and C.Y. Lee. 1987. Changes in apple poly-phenoloxidase and polyphenol concentrations in relation to degree of browning. J. Food Sci. 52:985-989.
10. Custódio, L., T. Justo, L. Silvestre, A. Barradas, C.V. Duarte, H. Pereira, L. Barreira, A.P. Rauter, F. Alberício, and J. Varela. 2012. Microalgae of different phyla display antioxidant, metal chelating and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Food Chem. 131:134-140.
11. Han, D., B.H. Ahn, and H.K. Shin. 1992. Modified atmosphere storage for extending shelf life of Oyster mushroom and shiitake. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 24:376-381.
12. Jo, I.H. and Y.H. Choi. 2010. Optimization of ethanol extraction of γ-oryzanol and other functional components from rice bran. Korean J. Food Preserv. 17:281-289.
13. Kader, A.A. 1985. Postharvest technology: An overview, p. 3-8. In: A.A. Kader (ed.). Posthavest technology of horticultural crops. Cooperative Extension University of California, Division of Agricultural and Nutritional Resource, University of California, CA, USA.
14. Kader, A.A. and L.L. Morris. 1977. Relative tolerance of fruits and vegetables to elevated CO and reduced O levels, p. 260-265. In: D.H. Dewey (ed.). Controlled atmospheres for storage and transport of perishable agricultural commodities. Proc. 2nd Natl. Controlled Atmosphere Res. Conf., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Hort. Rpt. 28:260-265.
15. Kim, B.S., S.Y. Park, M.S. Jang, and A.S. Kwon. 2007. Effect of prolongation by precooling treatment and improved packing of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Korean J. Food Preserv. 14:109-112.
16. Kim, Y.J. and H. Uyama. 2005. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: Structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cel.l Mol. Life Sci. 62:1707-1723.
17. Kubo, I., I. Kinst-Hori, S.K. Chaudhuri, Y. Kubo, Y. Sánchez, and T. Ogura. 2000. Flavonols from Heterotheca inuloides: Tyrosinase inhibitory activity and structural criteria. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 8:1749-1755.
18. Lee, J.H., S.K. Oh, D.J. Kim, M.R. Yoon, A. Chun, I.S. Choi, J.S. Lee, and Y.G. Kim. 2013. Comparison of antioxidant activities by different extraction temperatures of some commercially available cultivars of rice bran in Korea. Korean J. Food Nutr. 26:1-7.
19. Lee, J.Y., H.J. Park, C.Y. Lee, and W.Y. Choi. 2003. Extending shelf-life of minimally processed apples with edible coatings and antibrowning agents. LTW - Food Sci. Technol. 36:323-329.
20. Lim, J.H., J.H. Choi, S.I. Hong, M.C. Jeong, and D.M. Kim. 2006. Effects of packaging treatment on quality of fresh-cut mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus Sing.) during storage. Korean J. Food Preserv. 13:1-7.
21. Lin, J.Y. and C.Y. Tang. 2007. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chem. 101:140-147.
22. López-Briones, G., P. Varoquaux, Y. Chambroy, J. Bouquant, G. Bureau, and B. Pascat. 1992. Storage of common mushroom under controlled atmospheres. Intl. J. Food Sci. Technol. 27:493-505.
23. McCord, J.D. and A. Kilara. 1983. Control of enzymatic browning in processed mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J. Food Sci. 48:1479-1484.
24. Minamide, T., T. Iwata, and T. Habe. 1985. Studies on physio-logical, chemical properties and post-harvest keeping quality of mushrooms: IX. Changes in soluble carbohydrates and keeping the freshness of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus SING.) after harvest. Bull. Univ. Osaca Pref. Ser. B. Agric. Biol. 37:5-11.
25. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF). 2011. Agriculture and Forestry statistical yearbook. MAF, Sejong, Korea.
26. Oh, S.K., D.J. Kim, A.R. Chun, M.R. Yoon, K.J. Kim, J.S. Lee, H.C. Hong, and Y.K. Kim. 2010. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from milling by-products of rice cultivars. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39:624-630.
27. Pellegrini, N., E. Chiavaro, C. Gardana, T. Mazzeo, D. Contino, M. Gallo, P. Riso, V. Fogliano, and M. Porrini. 2010. Effect of different cooking methods on color, phytochemical concentration, and antioxidant capacity of raw and frozen brassica vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:4310-4321.
28. Qui, L., Q.H. Chen, J.X. Zhuang, X. Zhong, J.J. Zhou, Y.J. Guo, and Q.X. Chen. 2009. Inhibitiory effects of -cyano-4- hydroxycinnamic acid on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Food Chem. 112:609-613.
29. Richard-Forget, F.C., P.M. Goupy, and J.J. Nicolas. 1992. Cysteine as an inhibitor of enzymatic browning. 2. Kinetic studies. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:2108-2113.
30. Rico, D., A.B. Martı́n-Diana, J.M. Barat, and C. Barry-Ryan. 2007. Extending and measuring the quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 18:373-386.
31. Ryu, J.M., Y.J. Park, S.Y. Choi, T.Y. Hwang, I.H. Kim, D.H. Oh, and K.D. Moon. 2003. Browning inhibition and quality characteristics of minimally processed mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Sing) using extracts from natural materials during storage. Korean J. Food Preserv. 10:11-15.
32. Seo, S.J., Y.M. Choi, S.M. Lee, S.H. Kong, and J.S. Lee. 2008. Antioxidant activities and antioxidant compounds of some specialty rices. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37:129-135.
33. Soliva-Fortuny, R.C. and O. Martı́n-Belloso. 2003. New advances in extending the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14:341-353.
34. Son, S.M., K.D. Moon, and C.Y. Lee. 2000. Rhubarb juice as a natural antibrowning agent. J. Food Sci. 65:1288-1289.
35. Sukhonthara, S. and C. Theerakulkait. 2012. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extract on polyphenol oxidase of potato and banana. Intl. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47:482-487.
36. Yim, S.B., M.O. Kim, and S.J. Koo. 1991. Determination of dietary fiber contents in mushrooms. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 7:69-76.