Article | 10. 2014 Vol. 32, Issue. 5
Resistance of Cucurbits to Podosphaera xanthii Race 1

1Research Center for Biobased Chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology1
Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life Science and Environment, Chungbuk National University2

2014.10. 673:683


This study was conducted to establish an efficient screening method to identify cucurbits resistant to powdery mildew. Powdery mildew fungus was obtained from a single lesion of infected cucumber leaf in 2010 at Daejeon. The fungus was identified as Podosphaera xanthii race 1 based on morphological characteristics and resistance responses of four melon differentials. Development of powdery mildew caused by the fungal isolate on 34 commercial cultivars of cucumber was investigated at three plant growth stages in a greenhouse. The degree of resistance of cotyledons of each cultivar to the fungus was not correlated with that of whole plant, but powdery mildew occurrence in the first true leaf was highly correlated with resistance at the level of the whole plant. Based on these results, the first true leaf of cucurbit cultivars can be used for screening of resistance to powdery mildew. In addition, variation of resistance of commercial 12 cucumber and 26 melon cultivars to the powdery mildew fungus due to different growing seasons was tested. In the case of cucumber, the resistance response in some cultivars was influenced by growing season. The resistant cultivars showed higher resistance in the warm season than in the cool season. By contrast, the resistant melon cultivars demonstrated strong resistance in all the tested growing seasons. Interestingly, the tested powdery mildew pathogen, a member of P. xanthii race 1, was not pathogenic on seven cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). To follow up on this, diverse race 1 isolates of P. xanthii should be collected and tested.

1. Agrios, G.N. 2005. Environmental effects on the development of infectious plant disease, p. 251-262. In: Plant pathology. 5th ed. Academic Press Ltd., San Diego, CA, USA.  

2. Bardin, M., C. Dogimont, P. Nicot, and M. Pitrat. 1999. Genetic analysis of resistance of melon line PI 124112 to Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Erysiphe cichoracearum studied in recombinant inbred lines. Acta Hortic. 492:163-168.  

3. Bardin, M., P.C. Nicot, P. Normand, and J.M. Lemaire. 1997. Virulence variation and DNA polymorphism in Sphaerotheca fuliginea, causal agent of powdery mildew of cucurbits. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 103:545-554.  

4. Barnes, W.C. and W.M. Epps. 1956. Powdery mildew resistance in South Carolina cucumbers. Plant Dis. Rptr. 40:1093.  

5. Bertrand, E. and M. Pitrat. 1989. Screening of a muskmelon germplasm for susceptibility to 5 pathogens of powdery mildew, p. 140-142. In: Proc. Cucurbitaceae 89: Evaluation and enhancement of cucurbit germplasm. Charleston, SC, USA.  

6. Bertrand, F. 1991. Powdery mildews of cucurbits: Pure culture, variability and study of susceptibility in the muskmelon species. PhD. Diss., Univ. of Paris XI, Orsay, France.   

7. Cho, M.C., Y.H. Om, Y.C. Huh, S.R. Cheong, D.H. Kim, and I.G. Mok. 2009. Breeding of powdery mildew resistant squash ‘Kwangmyeong’. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 27:332-335.  

8. Cohen, R., D. Leibovich, D. Shtienberg, and H.S. Paris. 1993. Variability in the reaction of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) to inoculation with Sphaerotheca fuliginea and methodology of breeding for resistance. Plant Pathol. 42:510-516.  

9. Cohen, S. and Y. Cohen. 1986. Genetics and nature of resistance to race 2 of Sphaerotheca fuliginea in Cucumis melo PI 124111. Phytopathology 76:1165-1167.  

10. Cohen, Y. and H. Eyal. 1988. Pathogenicity of Erysiphe cichoracearum to cucurbits. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rep. 11:87-88.  

11. Cohen, Y., A. Baider, L. Petrov, L. Sheck, and V. Voloisky. 2000. Cross-infectivity of Sphaerotheca fuliginea to watermelon, melon, and cucumber. Acta Hort. 510:85-88.  

12. Cohen, Y. and H. Eyal. 1995. Differential expression of resistance to powdery mildew incited by race 1 or 2 of Sphaerotheca fuliginea in Cucumis melo genotypes at various stages of plant development. Phytoparasitica 23:223-230.  

13. Cohen, Y., A. Baider, L. Petrov, L. Sheck, and V. Voloisky. 2000. Cross-infectivity of Sphaerotheca fuliginea to watermelon, melon, and cucumber. Acta Hort. 510:85-88.  

14. Davis, A.R., B.D. Bruton, S.D. Pair, and C.E. Thomas. 2001. Powdery mildew: An emerging disease of watermelon in the United States. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rep. 24:42-48.  

15. Davis, A.R., C.E. Tomas, A. Levi, B.D. Bruton, and S.D. Pair. 2002. Watermelon resistance to powdery mildew race 1, p. 192-198. In: D.N. Maynard (ed.). Cucurbitaceae ’02. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.  

16. del Pino, D., L. Olalla, A. Pérez-García, M.E. Rivera, S. García, R. Moreno, A. de Vicente, and J.A. Torés. 2002. Occurrence of races and pathotypes of cucurbit powdery mildew in southeastern Spain. Phytoparasitica 30:459-466.  

17. Grigoriu, A.C. and S.G. Georgopoulos. 1984. Measurement of the degree and extent of metalaxyl resistance of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Greece. ISPP Chemical Control Newsl. 4:12-14.  

18. Hollomon, D.W. and I.E. Wheeler. 2002. Controlling powdery mildews with chemistry, p. 249-255. In: R.R. Bélanger, W.R. Bushnell, A.J. Dik, and T.L.W. Carver (eds.). The powdery mildews: A comprehensive treatise. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.  

19. Hosoya, K., K. Narisawa, M. Pitrat, and H. Ezura. 1999. Race identification in powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) on melon (Cucumis melo L.) in Japan. Plant Breed. 118:259-262.  

20. Hosoya, K., M. Kuzuya, T. Murakami, K. Kato, K. Narisawa, and H. Ezura. 2000. Impact of the resistant melon cultivars on Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Plant Breed. 119:286-288.  

21. Jagger, I.C., T.W. Whitaker, and D.R. Porter. 1938. A new biotic form of powdery mildew on muskmelon in the Imperial Valley of California. Plant Dis. Rep. 22:275-276.  

22. Katan, T. 1982. Cross resistance of metalaxyl-resistant Pseudoperonospora cubensis to other acylalanine fungicides. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 4:387-388.  

23. Keinath, A.P. 2000. Effect of protectant fungicide application schedules on gummy stem blight epidemics and marketable yield of watermelon. Plant Dis. 84:254-260.  

24. Kenigsbuch, D. and Y. Cohen. 1992. Inheritance and allelism of genes for resistance to races 1 and 2 of Sphaerotheca fuliginea in muskmelon. Plant Dis. 76:626-629.  

25. Khadar, A.S. and Y.A. Abdou. 1972. Comparison of systemic and contact fungicides for control of powdery mildew on squash and cucumber. Plant Dis. Rep. 56:878-881.  

26. Kooistra, E. 1968. Powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. Euphytica 17:236-244.  

27. Krístková, C., A. Leveda, and B. Sedláková. 2004. Virulence of Czech cucurbit powdery mildew isolates on Cucumis melo genotypes MR-1 and PI 124112. Scientia Hortic. 99:257-265.  

28. Kuzuya, M., K. Yashiro, K. Tomita, and H. Ezura. 2006. Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) resistance in melon is categorized into two types based on inhibition of the infection processes. J. Exp. Bot. 57:2093-2100.  

29. McCreight, J.D. 2006. Melon-powdery mildew interactions reveal variation in melon cultigens and Podosphaera xanthii races 1 and 2. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 131:59-65.  

30. McGrath, M.T. 2001a. Fungicide resistance in cucurbit powdery mildew: Experiences and challenges. Plant Dis. 85:236-245.  

31. McGrath, M.T. 2001b. Distribution of cucurbit powdery mildew races 1 and 2 on watermelon and muskmelon. Phytopathology 91:197-197.  

32. McGrath, M.T. and C.E. Thomas. 1996. Powdery mildew, p. 28-30. In: T.A. Zitter, D.L. Hopkins, and C.E. Thomas (eds.). Compendium of cucurbit diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN.  

33. Morishita, M., K. Sugiyama, T. Saito, and Y. Sakata. 2003. Powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. JARQ 37:7-14.  

34. Perchepied, L., M. Bardin, C. Dogimont, and M. Pitrat. 2005. Relationship between loci conferring downy mildew and powdery mildew resistance in melon assessed by quantitative trait loci mapping. Phytopathology 95:556-565.  

35. Pérez-García, A., L. Olalla, E. Rivera, D. delPino, I. Canovas, A. de Vicented, and J.A. Torés. 2001. Development of Sphaerotheca fusca on susceptible, resistant, and temperature-sensitive resistant cultivars. Mycol. Res. 105:1216-1222.  

36. Pitrat, M., C. Dogimont, and M. Bardin. 1998. Resistance to fungal diseases of foliage in melon, p. 167-173. In: J.D. McCreight (ed.). Cucurbitaceae ’98 Evaluation and Enhancement of Cucurbit Germplasm. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.  

37. Robinson, R.W. and R. Provvidenti. 1975. Susceptibility to powdery mildew in Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.). J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 100:328-330.  

38. Shin, H.D. 1994. Powdery mildew fungi and their host plants from Kangwon province. Korean J. Mycol. 22:229-246.  

39. Shin, H.D. and Y.J. La. 1993. Morphology of edge lines of chained immature conidia on conidiophores in powdery mildew fungi and their taxonomic significance. Mycotaxon 46:445-451.  

40. Sitterly, W.R. 1978. Powdery mildews of cucurbits, p. 360-379. In: D.M. Spencer (ed.). The powdery mildews. Academic Press, London.  

41. Smith, P.G. 1948. Powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. Phytopathology 38:1027-1028.  

42. Takada, K., K. Kanazawa, and K. Takatuka. 1974. Studies on the breeding of melon for resistance to powdery mildew. I. Difference of resistance among varieties and the breeding of the resistant variety ‘Sunrise’. Bull. Natl. Res. Inst. Veg. Ornam. Plants Tea Jpn. p. 59-91.  

43. Takada, K., K. Kanazawa, and K. Takatuka. 1975. Studies on the breeding of melon for resistance to powdery mildew. II. Inheritance of resistance to powdery mildew and correlation of resistance with other characters. Bull. Natl. Res. Inst. Veg. Ornam. Plants Tea Jpn. p. 11-31.  

44. Tetteh, A.Y., T.C. Wehner, and A.R. Davis. 2013. Inheritance of resistance to the new race of powdery mildew in watermelon. Crop Sci. 53:880-887.  

45. Thomas, C.E., E. Kishaba, J.D. McCreight, and P.E. Nugent. 1984. The importance of monitoring races of powdery mildew on muskmelon. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rep. 7:58-59.  

46. Vakalounakis, D.J. and E. Klironomou. 1995. Race and mating type identification of powdery mildew on cucurbits in Greece. Plant Pathol. 44:1033-1038.  

47. Vakalounakis, D.J. and E. Klironomou. 2001. Taxonomy of Golovinomyces on cucurbits. Mycotaxonomy 80:489-491.  

48. Vakalounakis, D.J., E. Klironomou, and A. Papadakis. 1994. Species spectrum, host range and distribution of powdery mildews on Cucurbitaceae in Crete. Plant Pathol. 43:813-818.  

49. Yarwood, C.E. 1978. History and taxonomy of powdery mildews, p. 1-37. In: D.M. Spencer (ed.). The powdery mildews. Academic Press, London.  

50. Zijlstra, S., R.C. Jansen, and S.P.C. Groot. 1995. The relationship between powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) resistance and leaf chlorosis sensitivity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) studied in single seed descent lines. Euphytica 81:193-198.