Article | 10. 2014 Vol. 32, Issue. 5
Response of Early-season Asian Pear ‘Hanareum’ Treated with GA4+7 to Postharvest Application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)

Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science1
Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University2
Postharvest Research Team, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science3

2014.10. 645:654


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1.0 μL・L-1), a known ethylene action inhibitor, on fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders during a simulated marketing period at 25°C for 20 days in early-season Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) ‘Hanareum’ that had been treated with 0, 0.5, 1.2 or 2.4% GA4+7. Weight loss of stored fruits increased with GA4+7 concentration, and the 1-MCP treatment slightly reduced the weight loss rates during the marketing period. Flesh firmness decreased abruptly in all 1-MCP-untreated fruits as the storage period extended to 10 d, whereas the firmness of 1-MCP-treated fruits remained high (> 30 N) during 15 days shelf-life. The effect of 1-MCP was significantly reduced when fruits were subjected to increased GA concentration. Higher soluble solids content and acidity during extended shelf-life were also apparent in 1-MCP-treated ‘Hanareum’ pears. The L-values (lightness) and hue angles of 1-MCP treated samples were higher than those of controls during 20 days shelf-life, but the a-value (redness) was lower in 1-MCP treated fruits. 1-MCP treatment did not decrease the level of ethylene evolution regardless of GA4+7 concentration during shelf-life in early-season Asian pear ‘Hanareum’. By contrast, 1-MCP treatment decreased the respiration rate significantly during shelf-life. The efficacy of 1-MCP was greatest in the GA-untreated fruit and was reduced as the GA4+7 concentration increased. 1-MCP treatment influenced the severity of physiological disorders including core browning and mealiness: 1-MCP treatment completely blocked the incidence of core browning of during 15 days shelf-life, and reduced the severity of mealiness during 20 days shelf-life regardless of GA4+7 concentration. Based on our results, we conclude that the use of 1 μL・L-1 1-MCP can be of great benefit for maintaining quality and preventing physiological disorders in early-season pear cultivar ‘Hanareum’ pear, whereas its efficacy decreases with the concentration of GA4+7 whereas its efficacy gradually decreases when the concentration of GA4+7 paste increased.

1. Bukovac, M.J. 1963. Induction of parthenocarpic growth of apple fruits with gibberellin A and A. Bot. Gaz. 124:191-195.   

2. Choi, S.T. and R.N. Bae. 2007. Extending the postharvest quality of tomato fruit by 1-methylcyclopropene application. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 25:6-11.  

3. Fan, X., L. Argenta, and J.P. Mattheis. 2002. Interative effects of 1-MCP and temperature on ‘Elberta’ peach quality. HortScience 37:134-138.  

4. Hwang, H.S., I.S. Shin, W.C. Cheon, Y.U. Shin, J.H. Hwang, and S.S. Hong. 2005. Breeding of a good quality, large size, and early summer season pear cultivar ‘Hanareum’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 23:60-63.  

5. Inomata, Y., S. Murase, S. Oikawa, T. Shinokawa, and K. Suzuki. 1992. Effect of gibberellin treatment on flowers of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) after late frost damage. Bull. Fruit Tree Res. Stn. 23:123-136.    

6. Jeong, S.T., J.G. Kim, S.S. Hong, H.S. Jang, and Y.B. Kim. 1998. Influence of maturity and storage temperature on the respiration rate and ethylene production in ‘Kosui’, ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Niitaka’ pears. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 39:446-448.  

7. Kader, A.A., D. Zagory, E.L. Kerbel, and C.Y. Wang. 1989. Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. Critic. Rev. Food Sci. Nutri. 28:1-30.   

8. Kitamura, T., T. Iwata, T. Fukusima, Y. Furukawa, and T. Ishiguro. 1981. Studies of the maturation-physiology and storage of fruits and vegetables. II. Respiration and ethylene production in reference to species and cultivars of pear fruit. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 49:608-616.   

9. Lee, U.Y. and J.P. Chun. 2011. Evaluation of quality indices during fruit development and ripening in ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whasan’ pears. CNU J. Agri. Sci. 38:405-411.  

10. Lee, U.Y., K.Y. Oh, J.H. Choi, Y.S. Hwang, J.M. Choi, and J.P. Chun. 2011. Evaluation of fruit quality during shelf-life at high temperature environment in ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whasan’ pears. J. Bio-Environ. Cont. 20:233-240.  

11. Lee, U.Y., K.Y. Oh, S.J. Moon, Y.S. Hwang, and J.P. Chun. 2012. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on fruit quality and occurrence of physiological disorders of Asia pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), ‘Wonhwang’ and ‘Whasan’ during shelf-life. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 30:534-542.  

12. Li, Z.Q. and L.J. Wang. 2009. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on ripening and superficial scald of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Akemizu) fruit at two temperatures. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 15:483-490.  

13. Lurie, S. and C.B. Watkins. 2012. Superficial scald, its etiology and control. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 65:44-60.  

14. Moon, S.J., S.H. Lee, J.H. Han, Y.S. Hwang, and J.P. Chun. 2008. Effects of 1-MCP and storage condition on fruit quality of ‘Whangkeumbae’ pear during storage and simulated marketing. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 26:380-386.  

15. Mullins, E.D., T.G. McCollum, and R.E. McDonald. 2000. Consequences on ethylene metabolism of inactivating the ethylene receptor sites in diseased non-climacteric fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 19:155-164.  

16. Nakagawa, S., I. Kiyokawa, H. Matsui, and H. Kurooka. 1973. Fruit development of peach and Japanese pear as affected by destruction of the embryo and application of gibberellins. J. Japan. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 37:104-112.   

17. Oanh, V.T.K., U.Y. Lee, J.H. Choi, H.C. Lee, and J.P. Chun. 2012. Changes of fruit characteristics and cell wall component during maturation and ripening in Asian pear ‘Hanareum’, ‘Manpungbae’ and ‘Niitaka’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 30:345-356.  

18. Oh, K.Y., U.Y. Lee, S.J. Moon, Y.O. Kim, H.S. Yook. Y.S. Hwang, and J.P. Chun. 2010. Transportation and distribution temperatures affect fruit quality and physiological disorders in ‘Wonhwang’ pears. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28:434-441.  

19. Park, Y.S. 1999. Effects of storage temperatures and CA conditions on firmness, fruit composition, oxygen consumption and ethylene production of Asian pears during storage. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 40:559-562.   

20. Selvarajah, S., A.D. Bauchot, and P. John. 2001. Internal browning in cold-stored pineapples is supressed by a postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 23:167-170.  

21. Tamura, F., J.P. Chun, K. Tanabe, M. Morimoto, and A. Itai. 2003. Effect of summer-pruning and gibberellin on the watercore development in Japanese pear ‘Akibae’ fruit. J. Japan. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 72:372-377.  

22. Tian, M.S., S. Prakash, H.J. Elgar, H. Young, D.M. Burmeister, and G.S. Ross. 2000. Responses of strawberry fruit to 1- methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene. J. Plant Growth Regul. 32:83-90.   

23. Watkins, C.B., J.F. Nock, and B.D. Whitaker. 2000. Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 19:17-32.  

24. Watkins, C.B., K.J. Silsby, and M.C. Goffinet. 1997. Controlled atmosphere and antioxidant effects on external CO injury of ‘Empire’ apples. HortScience 32:1242-1246.  

25. Whitaker, B.D., M. Villalobos, E.J. Mitcham, and J.P. Mattheis. 2009. Superficial scald susceptibility and α-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 53:43-50.  

26. Yamada, H., K. Nakajima, Y. Yamazawa, and I. Kuroi. 1991. Effect of pollination and gibberellin treatment on fruit set and development of the European pear (Pyrus communis L. var. sativa DC.) cv. Le Lectier. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci 60: 267-273.   

27. Yang, Y.J. 1997. Effect of controlled atmospheres on storage life in ‘Niitaka’ pear fruit. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38:734-738.    

28. Yuda, E., H. Matsui, S. Nakagawa, M. Yukimoto, and K. Wada. 1984. Effect of 15-β-OH gibberellins on the fruit set and development of three pear species. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 53:235-241.  

29. Zhang, C., K. Tanabe, F. Tamura, A. Itai, and M. Yoshida. 2007a. Role of gibberellins in increasing sink demand in Japanese pear fruit during rapid fruit growth. Plant Growth Regul. 52:161-172  

30. Zhang, C., K. Tanabe, F. Tamura, K Matsumoto, and A. Yoshida. 2005. C-photosynthate accumulation in Japanese pear fruit during the period of rapid fruit growth is limited by the sink strength of fruit rather than by the transport capacity of the pedicel. J. Exp. Bot. 56:2713-2719.  

31. Zhang, C., K. Tanabe, H. Tani, H. Nakajima, M Mori, and E. Sakuno. 2007b. Biologically active gibberellins and ABA in fruit of two late-maturing Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars with contrasting fruit size. J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 132:452-458.