Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University,1
Department of Plant Science, Seoul National University2
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of seedling ages of scions and rootstocks for grafting and light intensity during their cultivation in a closed transplant production system on the growth and development of grafted cucumber transplants. Cucumber scions and rootstocks were cultivated under 5 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels: 100, 140, 180, 230, and 280 µmol･m-2･s-1 in a closed transplant production system. The scions were grafted onto the rootstocks at 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 days after sowing (DAS). Hypocotyl length of scions and rootstocks decreased significantly as PPF increased, and an increase in dry weight with increasing PPF was more pronounced in scions. After grafting, cucumber transplants were grown in a greenhouse until 22 DAS and were then transplanted for investigation of their growth and development. Plant height, leaf area, and fresh weight of cucumber transplants grafted at 8, 9, and 10 DAS were greater, but light intensity during cultivation of scions and rootstocks did not significantly affect the early growth of cucumber transplants after grafting. The number of female flowers in grafted cucumber after transplanting was highest when scions and rootstocks were cultivated under PPF 140 and 180 µmol･m-2･s-1 and were grafted at 8 DAS. These results indicate that controlling environmental conditions in a closed transplant production system during the production of scions and rootstocks can advance grafting time and promote the growth and development of grafted cucumber transplants.
1. Butler, R.D. 1963. The effect of light intensity on stem and leaf growth in broad bean seedlings. J. Exp. Bot. 14:142-152.
2. Chang, Y.H., C.Y. Cho, C.W. Ro, and J.L. Cho. 2000. Effect of root-cut graft time on seedling growth in watermelon plug products. J. Kor. Hort. Sci. Technol. 18(Suppl. II):167. (Abstr.)
3. Chun, C. and T. Kozai. 2000. Closed transplant production system at Chiba University, p. 20-27. In: C. Kubota and C. Chun (eds.). Transplant production in the 21 century. Kluwer publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
4. Davis, A.R., P. Perkins-Veazie, Y. Sakata, S. López-Galarza, J.V. Maroto, S.G. Lee, Y.C. Huh, Z. Sun, A. Miguel, S.R. King, R. Cohen, and J.M. Lee. 2008. Cucurbit grafting. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 27:50-74.
5. Fujieda, K. 1966. A genecological study on the differentiation of sex expression in cucumber plants. Bul. Hortic. Res. Sta. Ser. D 4:43-86.
6. Greenwood, M.S. 1984. Phase change in loblolly pine: Shoot development as a function of age. Physiol. Plant 61:518-522.
7. Grimstad, S.O. 1993. The effect of a daily low temperature pulse on growth and development of greenhouse cucumber and tomato plants during propagation. Sci. Hortic. 53:53-62.
8. Johkan, M., K. Mitukuri, S. Yamasaki, G. Mori, and M. Oda. 2009. Causes of defoliation and low survival rate of grafted sweet pepper plants. Sci. Hortic. 119:103-107.
9. Johkan, M., M. Oda, and G. Mori. 2008. Ascorbic acid promotes graft-take in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Sci. Hortic. 116:343-347.
10. Kitaya, Y., G. Niu, T. Kozai, and M. Ohashi. 1998. Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and CO concentration affect growth and morphology of lettuce plug transplants. HortScience 33:988-991.
11. Kozai, T. 2006. Closed systems for high quality transplants using minimum resources, p. 275-312. In: S.D. Gupta and Y. Ibaraki (eds.). Plant tissue culture engineering. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
12. Kozai, T., K. Watanabe, and B.R. Jeong. 1995. Stem elongation and growth of Solanum tuberosum L. in vitro in response to photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod and difference in photoperiod and dark period temperatures. Sci. Hortic. 64:1-9.
13. Kubota, C., M.A. McClure, N. Kokalis-Burelle, M.G. Bausher, and E.N. Rosskopf. 2008. Vegetable grafting: History, use, and current technology status in North America. HortScience 43:1664-1669.
14. Lee, J.M., C. Kubota, S.J. Tsao, Z. Bie, P. Hoyos Echevarria, L. Morra, and M. Oda. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Sci. Hortic. 127:93-105.
15. Moore, R. 1984. A model for graft compatibility-incompatibility in higher plants. Am. J. Bot. 71:752-758.
16. Mosaleeyanon, K., S.M.A. Zobayed, F. Afreen, and T. Kozai. 2005. Relationships between net photosynthetic rate and secondary metabolite contents in St. John’s wort. Plant Sci. 169:523-531.
17. Nemali, K.S. and M.W. van Iersel. 2004. Light intensity and fertilizer concentration: II. Optimal fertilizer solution concentration for species differing in light requirement and growth rate. HortScience 39:1293-1297.
18. Ohyama, K., K. Manabe, Y. Omura, and T. Kozai. 2005. Potential use of a 24-hour photoperiod (continuous light) with altering air temperature for production of tomato plug transplants in a closed system. HortScience 40:374-377.
19. Ohyama, K., K. Manabe, Y. Omura, C. Kubota, and T. Kozai. 2003. A comparison between closed-type and open-type transplant production systems with respect to quality of tomato plug transplants and resource consumption during summer. Environ. Control Biol. 41:57-61.
20. Ohyama, K. and T. Kozai. 1998. Estimating electric energy consumption and its cost in a transplant production factory with artificial lighting: A case study. J. Soc. High Technol. Agri. 10:96-107.
21. Saito, T. and H. Ito. 1962. Studies on the growth and fruiting in the tomato, I. Effect of the early environment on the growth and fruiting, I. (1) Thermoperiods. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 31:303-314.
22. Schwarz, D., Y. Rouphael, G. Colla, and J.H. Venema. 2010. Grafting as a tool to improve tolerance of vegetables to abiotic stress: Thermal stress, water stress and organic pollutants. Sci. Hortic. 127:162-171.
23. Wright, J.S. 1893. Cell union in herbaceous grafting. Botanical Gazette 18:285-293.