Article | 06. 2014 Vol. 32, Issue. 3
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities in Different Parts and Cultivars of Broccoli

Vegetable Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration1

2014.06. 408:414


The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different cultivars and parts of broccoli were investigated. The screening of antimicrobial activities for the floret and leaf extracts of 11 cultivars against selected gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteritidis) were conducted. The AMG cultivar showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with the floret and leaf extracts (12.83 and 13.00 mm). Antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes was strongest with floret extract of NJ cultivar (13.58 mm) and leaf extract of YDR cultivar (13.92 mm). Moreover, the size of inhibition zone against L. monocytogenes was bigger than those of 4 kinds of pathogenic bacteria. Both floret and leaf extracts of Grd cultivar showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7, but there was no difference between floret and leaf extracts. Floret extract of NJ cultivar and leaf extract of NY and 0c cultivars were effective against S. enteritidis whereas leaf extract exhibited better antimicrobial effect than floret extract. These results showed that floret extract of NJ and leaf extract of 0c had the highest antioxidant activity which was 39.90 and 43.64%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that of floret extract. All cultivars except NJ showed that electron donating ability of leaf extract was higher than that of floret extract.

1. Andarwulan, N., R. Batari, D.A. Sandrasari, B. Bolling, and H. Wijaya. 2010. Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia. Food Chem. 121:1231-1235.  

2. Ayaz, F.A., S. Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz, S. Alpay-Karaoglu, J. Gru´z, K. Valentova´, J. Ulrichova´, and M. Strnad. 2008. Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC.) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Food Chem. 107:19-25.  

3. Bauer, A.W., W.M.M. Kibby, J.C. Sherris, and M. Turck. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45:493-496.  

4. Cha, B.C., S.B. Lee, T.J. Rhim, and K.H. Lee. 2000. Constituents of antioxidative activity and free radical scavenging effect from Galla Rhois (Rhus javanica Linne). Kor. J. Pharmacogn. 31:185-189.  

5. Dasgupta, N. and D. Bratati. 2007. Antioxidant activity of some leafy vegetables of India: A comparative study. Food Chem. 101:471-474.  

6. Farber, J.M. and P.I. Peterkin. 1991. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiol. Rev. 55:476-511.  

7. Fenwick, G.R. and R.K. Heaney. 1983. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in cruciferous crops, foods and feedingstuffs. Food Chem. 11:249-271.  

8. Fyhrquist, P., L. Mwasumbi, C.-A. Hæggström, H. Vuorela, R. Hiltunen, and P. Vuorela. 2002. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial investigation on some species of Terminalia and Combretum (Combretaceae) growing in Tanzania. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79:169-177.  

9. Gardner, P.R. and I. Fridovich. 1991. Superoxide sensitivity of the Escherichia coli 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase. J. Biol. Chem. 266:1479-1483.  

10. Granato, D., G.F. Branco, F. Nazzaro, A.G. Cruz, and J.A.F. Faria. 2010. Functional foods and nondairy probiotic food development: Trends, concepts, and products. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 9:292-302.  

11. Hatano, T. 1995. Constituents of natural medicines with scavenging effects on active oxygen species - Tannins and related polyphenols. Nat. Medicines 49:357-363.  

12. Imlay, J.A. and S. Linn. 1988. DNA damage and oxygen radical toxicity. Science 240:1302-1309.  

13. Jaiswal, A.K., G. Rajauria, N. Abu-Ghannam, and S. Gupta. 2011. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected irish brassica vegetables. Nat. Prod. Commun. 6:1-6.  

14. Jaiswal, A.K., N. Abu-Ghannam, and S. Gupta. 2012. A comparative study on the polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of different solvent extracts of Brassica oleracea vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47:223-231.  

15. Jayaprakasha, G.K., T. Selvi, and K.K. Sakariah. 2003. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extracts. Food Res. Int. 36:117-122.  

16. Kang, J.M. 2012. Studies on the characterization of Salmonella enteritidis isolates and the development of vaccine for Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Ph.D Diss., Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon, Korea.  

17. Khaw, K.T., S. Bingham, A. Welch, R. Luben, N. Wareham, S. Oakes, and N. Day. 2001. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet 357:657-663.  

18. Kim, H.J., J.W. Lee, and Y.D. Kim. 2011. Antimicrobial activity and antioxidant effect of Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma zedoaria. Korean J. Food Preserv. 18:219-225.  

19. Kim, M.R., J.H. Kim, D.S. Wi, J.H. Na, and D.E. Sok. 1999. Volatile sulfur compounds, proximate components, minerals, vitamin C content and sensory characteristics of the juices of kale and broccoli leaves. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 28:1201-1207.  

20. Kim, M.R., K.J. Lee, J.H. Kim, and D.E. Sok. 1997. Determination of sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables by SIM. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29:882-887.  

21. Kim, N.Y., M.K. Jang, M.J. Jeon, D.G. Lee. H.J. Jang, S.W. Lee, M.H. Kim, S.G. Kim, and S.H. Lee. 2010. Verification of antimicrobial activities of various pine needle extracts against antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Life Sci. 20:589-596.  

22. Kyung, K.H. and H.P. Fleming. 1994. S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide as the precursor of methyl methanethiolsulfinate, the principal antibacterial compound in cabbage. J. Food Sci. 59:350-355.  

23. Lee, B.W. and D.H. Shin. 1991. Screening of natural antimicrobial plant extract on food spoilage microorganisms. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23:200-204.  

24. Lee, H.S. and Y.W. Park. 2005. Antioxidant activity and antibacterial activities from different parts of broccoli extracts under high temperature. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34:759-764.  

25. Lim, J.S., J.H. Yoon, B.K. Min, and K.W. Hong. 2008. Detection and identification of shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 by multiplex PCR. Food Eng. Prog. 12:8-14.  

26. Masaki, H., S. Sasaki, T. Atusumi, and H. Sakurai. 1995. Active- oxygen scavenging activity of plant extracts. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18:162-166.  

27. Rauha, J.P., S. Remes, M. Heinonen, A. Hopia, M. Kähkönen, T. Kujalac, K. Pihlaja, H. Vuorela, and P. Vuorela. 2000. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 56:3-12.  

28. Shin, Y.S., J.E. Lee, I.K. Yeon, H.W. Do, J.D. Cheung, C.K. Kang, S.Y. Choi, S.J. Youn, J.G. Cho, and D.J. Kwoen. 2008. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of extract with water and ethanol of oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var makuwa Makino). J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 51:194-199.  

29. Sok, D.E., J.H. Kim, and M.R. Kim. 2003. Isolation and identification of bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals from solvent extract of broccoli. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:315-319.  

30. Stangeland, T., S.F. Remberg, and K.A. Lye. 2009. Total antioxidant activity in 35 Ugandan fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. 113: 85-91.  

31. Yildirim, A., A. Mavi, and A.A. Kara. 2001. Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumex crispus L. extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:4083-4089.  

32. Zhang, Y., P. Talalay, C.G. Cho, and G.H. Posner. 1992. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: Isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:2399-2403.