Article | 06. 2014 Vol. 32, Issue. 3
Growth, Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Chinese Cabbage in Response to High Temperature

Agricultural Research Center for Climate Change, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration1
Citrus Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Adinistration2
Department of Biology and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Jeju National University3

2014.06. 318:329


In order to gain insight into the physiological responses of plants to high temperature stress, the effects of temperature on Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. pekinensis cv. Detong) were investigated through analyses of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence under 3 different temperatures in the temperature gradient tunnel. Growth (leaf length and number of leaves) during the rosette stage was greater at ambient + 4°C and ambient + 7°C temperatures than at ambient temperature. Photosynthetic CO2 fixation rates of Chinese cabbage grown under the different temperatures did not differ significantly. However, dark respiration rate was significantly higher in the cabbage that developed under ambient temperature relative to elevated temperature. Furthermore, elevated growth temperature increased transpiration rate and stomatal conductance resulting in an overall decrease of water use efficiency. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transient was also considerably affected by high temperature stress; the fluorescence yield FJ, FI, and FP decreased considerably at ambient + 4°C and ambient + 7°C temperatures, with induction of FK and decrease of FV/FO. The values of RC/CS, ABS/CS, TRo/CS, and ETo/CS decreased considerably, while DIo/CS increased with increased growth temperature. The symptoms of soft-rot disease were observed in the inner part of the cabbage heads after 7, 9, and/or 10 weeks of cultivation at ambient + 4°C and ambient + 7°C temperatures, but not in the cabbage heads growing at ambient temperature. These results show that Chinese cabbage could be negatively affected by high temperature under a future climate change scenario. Therefore, to maintain the high productivity and quality of Chinese cabbage, it may be necessary to develop new high temperature tolerant cultivars or to markedly improve cropping systems. In addition, it would be possible to use the non-invasive fluorescence parameters FO, FV/FM, and FV/FO, as well as FK, MO, SM, RC/CS, ETo/CS, PIabs, and SFIabs (which were selected in this study), to quantitatively determine the physiological status of plants in response to high temperature stresses.

1. Atkin, O.K. and M.G. Tjoelker. 2003. Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Trends Plant Sci. 8:343-351.  

2. Campbell, C., L. Atkinson, J. Zaragoza-Castells, M. Lundmark, O. Atkin, and V. Hurry. 2007. Acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration is asynchronous in response to change in temperature regardless of plant functional group. New Phytol. 176:375-389.  

3. Carmo-Silva, A.E. and M.E. Salvucci. 2012. The temperature response of CO assimilation, photochemical activities and rubisco activation in Camelina sativa, a potential bioenergy crop with limited capacity for acclimation to heat stress. Planta 236:1433-1445.  

4. Chaterjee, A., H. Murata, and J.L. McEvoy. 1994. Global regulation of pectinases and other degradative enzymes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the incident postharvest decay in vegetable. HortScience 29:754-758.  

5. Chen, L.S. and L. Cheng. 2009. Photosystem II is more tolerant to high temperature in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) leaves than in fruit peel. Photosynthetica 47:112-120.  

6. Ge, Z.M., X. Zhou, C. Biasi, S. Kellomäki, K.Y. Wang, H. Peltola, and P.J. Martikainen. 2012. Carbon assimilation and allocation (C labeling) in a boreal perennial grass (Phalaris arundinacea) subjected to elevated temperature and CO through a growing season. Environ. Exp. Bot. 75:150-158.   

7. Guisse, B., A. Srivastava, and R.J. Strasser. 1995. The polyphasic rise of the chlorophyll a fluorescence (O-K-J-I-P) in heat stressed leaves. Arch. Sci. Geneve 48:147-160.  

8. Guo, Y.P., H.F. Zhou, and L.C. Zhang. 2006. Photosynthetic characteristics and protective mechanisms against photooxidation during high temperature stress in two citrus species. Sci. Hort. 108:260-267.  

9. Hadley, P., G.R. Batts, R.H. Ellis, J.I.L. Morison, S. Pearson, and T.R. Wheeler. 1995. Temperature gradient chamber for research on global environment change. II. A twin-wall tunnel system for low-stature, field-grown crops using a split heat pump. Plant Cell Environ. 18:1055-1063.   

10. Hayat, S., A. Masood, M. Yusuf, Q. Fariduddin, and A. Ahmad. 2009. Growth of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in response to salicylic acid under high-temperature stress. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 21:187-195.  

11. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate change 2007: Mitigation of climate change, contribution of working group III contribution to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, USA.   

12. Kaukoranta, T. 1996. Impact of global warming on potato late blight: Risks, yield loss and control. Agri. Food Sci. Finland 5:311-327.   

13. Kriedemann, P.F., R.D. Graham, and J.T. Wiskich. 1985. Photo-synthetic dysfunction and in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence from manganese-deficient wheat leaves. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 36:157-169.  

14. Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Vol. 1. Chilling, freezing and high temperature stresses. 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, USA.  

15. Lu, C. and J. Zhang. 1999. Effects of water stress on photosystem II photochemistry and its thermostability in wheat plants. J. Exp. Bot. 50:1199-1206.  

16. Lu, C.M. and J.H. Zhang. 2000. Heat-induced multiple effects on PS II in wheat plants. J. Plant Physiol. 156:259-265.  

17. Mathur, S., A. Jajoo, P. Mehta, and S. Bharti. 2011. Analysis of elevated temperature-induced inhibition of photosystem II using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics in wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum). Plant Biol. 13:1-6.   

18. Oh, S.J. and S.C. Koh. 2013. Chlorophyll a fluorescence response to mercury stress in the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris. J. Environ. Sci. 22:705-715.  

19. Opeña, R.T., C.G. Kuo, and J.Y. Yoon. 1988. Breeding and seed production of Chinese cabbage in the tropics and subtropics. Technical Bul. No. 17. Asian Vegetable Research and Develop-ment Center (AVRDC), Shanhua, Taiwan.  

20. Porter, J.R. and M.A. Semenov. 2005. Crop responses to climatic variation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 360:2021-2035.  

21. Prange, R.K., K.B. McRae, D.J. Midmore, and R. Deng. 1990. Reduction in potato growth at high temperature: Role of photosynthesis and dark respiration. Amer. Potato J. 67:357-369.   

22. Silim, S.N., N. Ryan, and D.S. Kubien. 2010. Temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in Populus balsamifera L.: Acclimation versus adaptation. Photosynth. Res. 104:19-30.   

23. Srivastava, A., B. Guisse, H. Greppin, and R.J. Strasser. 1997. Regulation of antenna structural and electron transport in photosystem II of Pisum sativum under elevated temperature probed by the fast polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transient: OKJIP. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1320:95-106.  

24. Strasser, B.J. and R.J. Strasser. 1995. Measuring fast fluorescence transients to address environmental questions: The JIP test, p. 977-980. In: P. Mathis (ed.). Photosynthesis: From light to biosphere. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands.   

25. Strasser, R.J. 1997. Donor side capacity of photosystem II probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transients. Photosynth. Res. 52:147-155.   

26. Strasser, R.J., A. Srivastava, and M. Tsimilli-Michael. 2000. The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples, p. 443-480. In: M. Yunus, U. Pathre, and P. Mohanty (eds.). Probing photosynthesis: Mechanisms, regulation and adaptation. Taylor & Francis, London, UK.  

27. Takahashi, S. and N. Murata. 2008. How do environmental stresses accelerate photoinhibition? Trends Plant Sci. 13:178-182.  

28. Tjoelker, M.G., P.B. Reich, and J. Oleksyn. 1999. Changes in leaf nitrogen and carbohydrates underlie temperature and CO acclimation of dark respiration in five boreal tree species. Plant Cell Environ. 22:767-778.  

29. Yan, K., P. Chen, H. Shao, S. Zhao, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, G. Xu, and J. Sun. 2012. Responses of photosynthesis and photosystem II to higher temperature and salt stress in sorghum. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 198:218-225.  

30. Yang, K.A., C.J. Lim, J.K. Hong, C.Y. Park, Y.H. Cheong, W.S. Chung, K.O. Lee, S.Y. Lee, M.J. Cho, and C.O. Lim. 2006. Identification of cell wall genes modified by a permissive high temperature in Chinese cabbage. Plant Sci. 171:175-182.  

31. Yoshioka, M., S. Uchiba, H. Mori, K. Komayama, S. Ohira, N. Morita, T. Nakanish, and Y. Yamamoto. 2006. Quality control of photosystem II: Cleavage of reaction center D1 protein in spinach thylakoids by FtsH protease under moderate heat stress. J. Biol. Chem. 281:21660-21669.   

32. Zushi, K., S. Kajiwara, and N. Matsuzoe. 2012. Chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP transient as a tool to characterize and evaluate response to heat and chilling stress in tomato leaf and fruit. Sci. Hortic. 148:39-46.